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Clause 9.8 - PURPOSE GROUP VIII OCCUPANCY

9.8.1 General

a. Means of escape

(1) aboveground warehouse floors

E

One exit staircase is permitted to serve an aboveground warehouse floor provided:

(a) the habitable height of the floor shall not exceed 15m;

(b) the floor shall not be located above 4th storey; and

(c) the AFA of the floor shall not exceed 200m².

(2) Mezzanine floors

One open stair is allowed to serve a mezzanine floor(s) within an aboveground warehouse floor provided:

(a) the aggregate AFA of the mezzanine floor(s) per warehouse unit shall not exceed 60m²;

(b) the open stair shall have a width of at least 1m and be constructed of non-combustible materials;

(c) the maximum travel distance measured from remote point on the mezzanine floor(s) to the exits shall comply with Table 2.2A;

(d) the elements of structure of the mezzanine floor(s) shall be of at least 1-hr fire resistance construction;

(e) the habitable height of mezzanine floor shall not exceed 24m; and

(f) mezzanine floor shall only be used for store and/or ancillary office.

b. Structural fire precautions

(1) Vehicle parking area

E

Fire compartmentation shall be provided between a vehicle parking area (PG VIII) and other areas, except for ancillary washrooms, the fire compartment walls and floors shall have at least 1-hr fire resistance rating.

Exceptions:

(a) For a sprinkler-protected factory, compartmentation between the vehicle parking areas and the factory is not required, provided the vehicle parking area and adjacent driveway are provided with an engineered smoke control system.

(b) For a sprinkler-protected warehouse, thermal insulation of the fire-rated shutters between the vehicle parking area and the warehouse is not required, provided the vehicle parking/loading and unloading area and adjacent driveway are provided with an engineered smoke control system.

(2) Warehouse

Warehouse compartment size exceeding 700m² for above ground level and 100m² for below ground level are subject to full compliance of Cl.9.8.3.

9.8.2 Coldroom

Where coldrooms are provided in PG III, IV, V, VI, VII or VIII buildings, the following requirements shall be complied with:

a. Coldroom constructed of combustible insulation panels

(1) For non-sprinkler-protected buildings

Where the aggregate floor area of coldroom(s) exceeds 10m², a separate outer layer of non-combustible construction, including the door, having at least 1-hr fire resistance rating, shall be provided to compartmentalise the coldroom(s) from other areas. The maximum aggregate floor area of the coldroom(s) shall not exceed 100m2 in each compartment.

(2) For sprinkler-protected buildings

Where the aggregate floor area of coldroom(s) exceeds 20m², a separate outer layer of non-combustible construction, including the door, having 1-hr fire resistance rating, shall be provided to compartmentalise the coldroom(s) from other areas/usages. The maximum aggregate floor area of the coldroom(s) shall not exceed 700m2 in each compartment.

(3) Non-compartmentalised coldroom shall not be used for storage of highly flammable chemicals.

b. Coldroom constructed of fire-rated insulation panels

Where the coldroom panels are constructed of material having at least 1-hr fire resistance rating, the compartment sizes stipulated in Cl.9.8.2a.(1) and (2) above need not be complied with but are subject to a maximum of 2000m2 (for non-sprinkler-protected buildings) or 4000m2 (for sprinkler-protected buildings), or sizes stipulated under Cl.9.8.4 for storage of chemical/hazmat materials, whichever is applicable and smaller.

c. Properties of coldroom panel

(1) All coldroom panels shall achieve at least Class B under EN 13501-1 or its equivalent, when tested as a composite panel with plastic or other types of core material.

(2) For a coldroom that consists of a processing/handling area, the toxicity emission and smoke density requirements shown in Table 9.8.2c.(2) for the insulation material shall be complied with.

Smoke density EN 13501-1; or (a) Smoke classification to be of s1 rating (b) Flaming droplet classi- fication to be d0 rating EN ISO 5659-2 VOF4 < 300 min

TABLE 9.8.2c.(2) : TOXICITY EMISSION AND SMOKE DENSITY REQUIREMENTS

Fire risk

Applicable fire test

standards

Acceptance criteria

Toxicity emission

BS EN 45545-2; or

CIT < 0.75

EN ISO 5659-2

Smoke density

EN 13501-1; or

(a) Smoke classification to be of s1 rating

(b) Flaming droplet classification to be d0 rating

EN ISO 5659-2

VOF4 < 300 min

(3) For a standalone coldroom that does not have a processing/handling area, the above toxicity emission and smoke density requirements for the insulation material need not be complied with.

d. Coldroom panels supporting structures

All coldroom panels supporting structures shall have a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour, unless it is located at an external space.

e. Activities involving open flame

Open-flame activities shall not be carried out in coldrooms. Where such activities are required due to the nature of the operation, the areas where open- flame activities are carried out shall be protected in accordance with Cl.3.2.5f.(1) and (4) and the coldroom insulation materials shall meet the toxicity emission and smoke density requirements stipulated under Table 9.8.2c.(2) above.

9.8.3 General warehouses

a. General

The scope of this section covers the fire safety requirements for general warehouses which include single-storey single-user warehouses, single-storey multi-user warehouses, underground warehouses, multi-storey warehouses with or without basements and warehouse within other non-industrial buildings.

b. Compartment

(1) Departmental stores and supermarkets having displayed storage height more than 4m (with sprinkler protection) or 2.5m (without sprinkler protection) shall comply with the requirements as stipulated in this section.

(2) The size of compartment shall not exceed the maximum allowable dimensions shown in the Table 9.8A, depending on the type of fire protection and location of the warehouse.

(3) Compartmentation, in respect of size limitation, can be achieved by using fire-rated roller shutter. Localised smoke detector shall be installed to activate the roller shutter. The roller shutter shall also be linked to the building automatic fire alarm system which shall act as a backup for the activation of the shutter.

Note: Such localised smoke detection system shall be provided with zone indication on the main fire alarm panel with buzzer sound, however its activation is not necessary to sound the general fire alarm.

(4) Compartmentation between the warehouse and loading/unloading/ staging area shall be provided (to comply with Cl.9.8.3b.(3)), except where:

(a) the warehouse is a single-storey single-user or multi-storey single-user per storey type, with the loading/unloading area abutting an external space, or

(b) the roof over the loading/unloading (or staging) area abutting an external space is not more than 3m in depth.

Note: Down-stand fire wall of minimum depth 1m hanging from the ceiling shall be provided [except for Cl.9.8.3b.(4)(b)] between the loading/unloading area and the warehouse storage area.

(5) The compartment size limit stipulated in Table 9.8A shall include the loading/unloading (or staging) area if it is not fire-compartmented from the warehouse area, unless:

(a) the entire warehouse including the loading/unloading and driveway area, is protected with sprinkler and smoke control systems; and

(b) the roof over the loading/unloading (or staging) area abutting an external space is not more than 3m in depth.

c. Sprinkler protection

(1) Automatic sprinkler system shall be provided if the compartment size of the warehouse exceeds the maximum allowable size shown in the Table 9.8A.

(2) Sprinkler coverage shall be extended to the areas shielded by access platforms in the high-rack storage warehouse. The supporting structures of the platforms shall have the same fire resistance rating as the element of structure of the warehouse.

d. Storage height control

(1) Signage shall be provided on the walls of the warehouse (including the loading/unloading or staging area) to control the maximum allowable storage height and to maintain the minimum clearance below the sprinkler heads in accordance with SS CP 52.

(2) A 50mm wide red line shall be drawn around the wall with signage indicated as “No Storage Above This Line”. This sign shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 15m.

(3) The lettering of the sign shall be at least 100mm.

(4) The storage height limitations shall be clearly indicated on building plans and on the walls of the warehouse at intervals not exceeding 15m.

(5) Transient storage at loading/unloading (or staging) area shall comply with the Table 9.8D and Table 9.8E in terms of the storage height limit. For non-sprinkler-protected warehouse, the storage height shall be limited to 2.5m.

e. Smoke control

(1) Provision

The provision of smoke control shall be in accordance with Table 9.8B, either in the form of smoke vent, smoke purging or engineered smoke control system depending on the fire compartment size and type of fire protection system.

(2) Smoke vents

Smoke vents (refer to Table 9.8B) shall comply with the requirements stipulated below:

(a) They shall be of permanent open type and the effective opening shall be either comply with Table 9.8B or Table 9.8C. Panels can be used as smoke vents provided they are designed to be activated automatically. The use of glass blocks as smoke vents are not permitted.

(b) The minimum dimensions of vertical smoke vent shall be 400mm (length) x 600mm (height) and horizontal smoke vent (roof or ceiling) shall be 0.25m2 in area.

(c) No area in the warehouse shall be more than the stipulated distance (refer to either Table 9.8B or Table 9.8C) measured horizontally away from any vertical or horizontal smoke vent.

(d) They shall be located at the highest unobstructed level along the perimeter walls of the warehouse.

(3) Smoke purging system

Replacement of smoke vents by smoke purging system is allowed provided that the warehouse is sprinkler-protected. The smoke purging system shall comply with Cl.7.4.3.

(4) Engineered smoke control

Engineered smoke control systems shall comply with the requirements stipulated below:

(a) They shall be provided if the floor area of the compartment is more than 5000m2 or 2000m2 for aboveground or underground warehouses respectively;

(b) They shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements stipulated in this Code or equivalent standards approved by the SCDF; and

(c) The fire size determined shall be concurred by the SCDF before it is used for the design of the engineered smoke control system.

f. Fire extinguishers

(1) Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with SS 578.

(2) Classification of storage hazards based on storage height shall follow Table 21(A) and Table 21(B) of SS CP 52 (refer to Table 9.8D and Table 9.8E) for the different categories of storage and overall stack heights. Ordinary hazard classification in SS CP 52 shall be taken as equivalent to medium hazard classification in SS 578.

9.8.4 Chemical/HazMat warehouses

a. Scope

(1) Chemicals or hazardous materials (HazMat) have a wide range of properties and hazards, which shall be identified and understood in order to fulfil the requirements of safe warehousing. A complete understanding of the hazards requires an assessment of the container and packaging systems and storage arrangements. In addition, the requirements of general warehouse shall be complied with.

(2) The fire safety requirement for laboratory storing and using chemicals/ hazmat shall be in accordance with NFPA 45 [except for Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) which shall be as stipulated in Table 9.8K and Table 9.8L].

! Note to QPs on Clause 9.8.4a.(2)

The laboratory operators shall minimize the amount of flammable liquids on benches by returning them to chemical store or safety cabinets when the liquids are not needed for the day. At the same time, the laboratory operators shall ensure that the quantity of these liquids placed on benches and fume cupboards shall not exceed 10% of the total allowable storage capacity within the laboratory unit. Liquids used for running and operating laboratory instruments or other work-in-progress which may require some quantities of solvents to operate are exempted from the 10% limit.

b. Identification of hazardous materials (HazMat)

! Note to QPs on Clause 9.8.4b

Consultation with Hazmat Department of the SCDF shall be sought at the initial stage (Quantitative Risk Assessment study may be required) and, at the stage of finalizing for further comment and concurrence before the formal plan submission. QP shall obtain the technical requirements from other relevant agencies first before consulting the SCDF for the following classes of HazMat:

a. SPF for Class 1

b. NEA for Class 2.3, 3, 6.1, 6.2, 7 & 8

c. MOH for Class 6.2 (Health Sciences Authority, HSA) & Class 7 (Centre for Radiation Protection under HSA)

Substances listed as hazardous materials are classified as shown in Table 9.8F.

c. Size limitation

(1) For chemical/HazMat warehouses storing Class 3, 4 & 5 hazardous materials, the maximum floor area per compartment and type of fire protection system shall be as shown in Table 9.8G.

(2) Storage of compressed gases (Class 2), flammable liquid (Class 3), flammable solid (Class 4.2 & 4.3), oxidising agent (Class 5.1) and organic peroxide (Class 5.2) shall be located only at the ground floor with at least one external wall facing directly to an exterior open safe space unless otherwise stipulated.

(3) Solid materials (Class 4.1) is allowed to be stored at aboveground floors of habitable height not more than 24m and the storage quantity shall be limited to 1200kg/m² of floor area.

(4) Compressed gas cylinders (Class 2) are allowed to be stored at aboveground floors of habitable height not more than 24m provided that a vehicular ramp (with turning facility) suitable for 30-tonne firefighting appliances is erected for direct access to the storage area.

(5) For Class 2 HazMat, no stacking is allowed. The hazardous materials shall be laid directly on the floor.

(6) Storage, use and handling of compressed gases (Class 2) shall be in compliance with NFPA 55 and it be allowed to be located at aboveground floor.

(7) For sprinkler-protected warehouses, the storage height shall be limited to 18m for single- storey warehouse and 15m for warehouse that is located at 1st storey of a multiple-storey building. For non-sprinkler- protected warehouse storing Class 3 HazMat, storage height shall be in compliance with NFPA 30 (basing on the flash points of the hazardous materials), subject to a maximum height of 3.6m.

(8) Storage of oxidizers (Class 5.1, solid or liquid) shall be in compliance with NFPA 430 or AS 4326.

(9) Storage of organic peroxide (Class 5.2) shall be in compliance with NFPA 432 or AS 2714.

(10) No compartment in the chemical/hazmat warehouse shall comprise more than one storey.

(11) Recommendations made within the individual Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) shall be complied with.

(12) An approved layout plan (with the relevant TFP/FSC) with such hazmat warehouse/storage capacity highlighted shall be kept within the premises to facilitate the inspection and emergency operation procedures.

d. Provision of fire engine accessway

(1) Fire engine accessway shall be provided for firefighting appliances. The minimum length of the accessway, based on the gross cubical extent of the entire warehouse space, shall be as shown in Table 9.8J.

(2) At least one external wall of the warehouse shall be directly fronting an empty space (such as turf area) of minimum width 2m. One of the access doors provided along this external wall shall be placed not more than 30m (for type K1) or 15m (for type K2) from the fire engine accessway/ fire engine access road for ease of firefighting.

(3) For K3 and K4 compartments, at least one external wall shall be directly fronting an engine access road or access way. At least two exit access doors (minimum 15m apart) shall be provided along this external wall for ease of firefighting.

(4) The loading and unloading (the area may be roofed over) shall be carried out directly from the exterior open space for type K2, K3 and K4 compartments.

(5) For type K1 compartment, the distance from the external loading/ unloading area (may be roofed over) to the access door of the compartment shall not be more than 10m for non-sprinkler-protected buildings and 15m for sprinkler-protected buildings. For Class 3 HazMat, the maximum volume of hazardous liquid shall be limited to 3000L or 5000L for non-sprinkler-protected and sprinkler-protected compartments respectively.

(6) For storage of Class 4.1 HazMat aboveground level, fire engine accessway and the associated FAPs shall be provided for the full stretch of the external wall of the storage area.

e. Water supply for private hydrant

(1) Water supply for hydrant system shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) hydrant fed by PUB mains is allowed for type K1 and K2 compartments. The water supply requirement shall comply with the Cl.4.4.2a..

(b) hydrant with dedicated pumping & storage facilities shall be provided for type K3 and K4 compartments. The water supply requirement shall comply with Table 4.4A of this Code with minimum running pressure of 3.5 bars (it shall be designed accordingly to individual emergency response plan and respective SOP).

(2) The spillage control and retention basin for firefighting water for warehouse storage hazardous substances shall be in accordance with SS 532, NFPA 30 and requirements of authority having jurisdiction. Gate valve(s) shall be provided from the second containment (such as bund wall) at a safe location to allow the firefighters to operate during emergency and, the outlet shall be directly drained to a safe area or storm drain.

f. Mechanical ventilation systems

(1) The ventilation systems for warehouse storing Class 3 HazMat shall comply with SS 532 and the smoke control system shall comply with the requirements for general warehouse.

(2) The ventilation system for Class 2 shall comply with NFPA 55.

(3) Mechanical ventilation system for removal of vapour shall be interlocked with the smoke control system to ensure that both systems will not be affecting one another.

(4) The ventilation system shall be designed to provide air-movement across all portions of the room to prevent the accumulation of vapours. Short-circuiting of the mechanical ventilation system shall be avoided.

(5) Fresh air inlets and exhaust outlets shall be properly located according to the type of gases or vapours to be exhausted.

(6) The air-conditioning system and MV system for the storage area of HazMat shall not be shared with other occupied areas.

g. Fire extinguisher

(1) Fire extinguisher shall be provided complying with SS CP 578, SS 532 and other related standards. (Also, refer to the relevant MSDS and consult the manufacturer or supplier for the details.)

(2) Additional mobile type 50kg ABC (foam or chemical powder) fire extinguishers having minimum 6m throw and discharge hose length of minimum 6m shall be provided to cover the loading and unloading area for K2, K3 and K4 compartment under hazard grade 2, 3 & 4. The access from any remote point of the loading/unloading area (including the parking lots area) to the 50kg fire extinguishers shall not be more than 15m.

(3) For K1 compartment size, mobile type 50kg fire extinguisher shall only be required when the overall hazmat storage area is more than 100m2.

h. Determination of exit requirement

(1) The determination of travel distance in chemical/HazMat warehouse shall be in compliance with Table 2.2A for high hazard occupancy, 10m/20m for non-sprinkler-protected building and 20m/35m for sprinkler-protected building.

(2) All exit and access doors shall be provided with the proper hazard and warning sign on both sides of these doors.

i. Other fire safety requirements

The following standards and codes of practices (non-exhaustive) shall be complied with for the proposed chemical/HazMat warehouse:

(1) SS CP 10, SS CP 52

(2) SS 98, SS 254, SS 286, SS 532, SS 575, SS 578

(3) AS 2714, AS 4326

(4) NFPA 16, NFPA 45, NFPA 55, NFPA 400, NFPA 495

(5) IEC 60079

9.8.5 Fully Automated Mechanised Car Parks (FAMCPs)

a. General

The provisions of this chapter of the Code shall serve to stipulate the fire safety requirements for the FAMCP. These requirements shall assist with plans submissions to the design, construction, protection, location and arrangement of the various fire safety provisions.

b. Parking height

The parking height refers to the height that shall be measured from the average level of the ground adjoining the outside of the external walls of the building to the highest or lowest car parking level. In situations where mixed usage involving above ground and underground car parking, the height shall be measured between the highest and lowest car parking levels.

c. Classification of FAMCP

The FAMCP shall be subdivided into three categories as follows:

(1) Category 1a: Small aboveground having the following sizes:

E

(a) Maximum floor area: 200m2 (Total area of car parking decks)

(b) Maximum cubical extent: 1400m3

(c) Maximum parking height: 10m

(d) Minimum side openings: At least one side of the FAMCP shall be fully open and facing the fire engine access road

(2) Category 1b: Small above ground with deck sunken, having not more than 2 car parking level sunken below the ground level and having the following sizes:

E

(a) Maximum floor area: 200m2 (Total area of car parking decks)

(b) Maximum cubical extent: 1400m3

(c) Maximum parking height: 14m (Subject to maximum parking height of 10m above ground level)

(d) Minimum side openings: At least one side of the FAMCP shall be fully open and facing the fire engine access road

(3) Category 2: Any above ground that does not fall under Category 1.

E

(4) Category 3: Any underground that does not fall under Category 1, including FAMCP that combines above ground (Category 2) and underground (Category 3) parking.

E

d. Fire safety requirements that are applicable to all three categories of FAMCP

The fire safety requirements that are applicable to all three categories of car parks are as follows:

(1) areas within the car park building shall not be accessible to the public;

(2) the car park building shall be classified as PG VIII (storage) as per Table 1.4A;

(3) means of escape shall be provided where there are areas that are accessible by the public and these shall be in accordance with the requirements as for PG VIII buildings;

(4) where a separation wall or floor is required, fire-rated floor of at least 2- hr fire resistance rating subject to compliance with the requirements of the elements of structure for PG VIII buildings shall be provided;

(5) where an external wall is required in Cl.3.5, fire-rated floor of at least 1- hr fire resistance rating subject to compliance with the requirements of the elements of structure for PG VIII buildings shall be provided;

(6) for unprotected openings, Table 2 of Annex 3B to Cl.3.5 shall be complied with;

(7) fire extinguishers having a minimum rating of 70B shall be provided at every entrance and exit of the car park;

(8) hose reel coverage shall be provided for every entrance and exit of the car park;

(9) where any such installation is required, its primary and secondary source of power supplies shall be in accordance with Chapter 5; and

(10) fire engine access roads to be provided to gain access to the exit staircases.

e. Category 1 fire safety requirements for small above ground fully automated mechanised car park (SA- FAMCP)

(1) The SA-FAMCP shall not exceed the following compartment limits as indicated in the table below:

TABLE 9.8.5e.(1) : COMPARTMENTATION OF SA-FAMCP

Compartment

Maximum Floor Area

Maximum Cubicle Extent

Compartment between average ground level and a height of 10m.

200m2

(Total area of car parking decks)

1400m3

(2) The SA-FAMCP shall be constructed of structural steel construction. Fire resistance to element shall be provided according to Cl.3.3.

(3) For SA-FAMCP having multi-car parking level, vertical fire separation between the upper and lower decks by using non- perforated and non- combustible materials (e.g. structural steel plate) shall be provided.

R Rationale - Clause 9.8.5e.(3)

This is to minimise direct impingement of flame to the car on the upper deck and also to prevent dripping of any possible leaking fuel to the lower deck.

(4) Fire engine access roads to be provided to gain access to the exit staircases.

(5) Private fire hydrants if required shall be provided in accordance with Cl.4.4.

(6) At least one side of the FAMCP shall be fully open and facing the access road. The maximum distance measured from the opening(s) to the most remote part of the car parking deck shall not exceed 8m.

f. Category 2 fire safety requirements for above ground fully automated mechanised car park (A - FAMCP)

All A-FAMCP shall be subjected to the Fire Certificate scheme. The specific fire safety requirements for the A-FAMCP shall be as follows:

(1) the A-FAMCP shall be constructed of structural steel construction. Fire resistance to element of structure shall be provided according to Cl.3.3.

(2) the vertical fire separation between the upper and lower decks by using non-perforated and non-combustible materials (structural steel plate) shall be provided.

(3) firefighting provisions shall be provided as follows:

(a) all exit staircases shall conform to the requirements of Cl.2.3.3;

(b) smoke-free approach as stated in Cl.2.2.13 and Cl.2.2.14;

(c) fire doors of at least 1-hr fire resistance rating for the access of firefighters via the exit staircase into the car park. The fire door shall be of at least 850mm wide by 1m high with a visual glass panel. Wordings of “For smoke venting, do not enter” shall be posted on the external side of the door. The wordings shall be of at least 25mm in height.

(d) the numbers of exit staircases provided shall depend on the number of rising mains. Each rising main serving every car parking level shall provide the following coverage:

(i) an access platform of minimum width of 900mm shall be provided and shall be constructed with at least 1-hr fire resistance rating. Handrails shall be provided on both sides to prevent falls.

(ii) no part of any car parking deck shall exceed 28m.

(e) Breeching inlet serving rising main shall be located within 18m of the fire engine access road.

(f) Dry rising main shall be provided for height exceeding 10m and up to 60m. When the height exceeds 60m, wet rising main shall be provided. The breeching inlet shall be located at the foot of the riser stack. One standby fire hose shall be provided at the ground level of each staircase.

(g) Fire lift shall be provided for habitable height exceeding 24m.

(h) Where fire lift is required, a two-way voice communication system shall be provided between the Fire Command Centre and the following areas:

(i) every fire lift lobby, including 1st storey; and

(ii) all firefighting-related mechanical equipment rooms inclusive of sprinkler pump room, wet riser pump room, etc..

(i) FCC shall be provided in accordance with C1.8.2.4.

(j) Private fire hydrant where required shall be provided in accordance with Cl.4.4;

(k) Fire engine access roads to be provided to gain access to exit staircases.

(l) The A-FAMCP shall be protected by active firefighting systems such as sprinklers or clean agent fire extinguishing systems:

(i) Where sprinkler protection is installed, quick response sprinklers shall be provided. Each parking deck shall be protected by at least one sprinkler head.

(ii) Where clean agent fire extinguishing systems are installed, the amount of agent required to achieve the design concentration shall be based on total flooding method. Standby cylinders at 100% capacity shall be provided on site.

(iii) All doors, shutters, dampers, and/or openings shall be closed throughout the duration of gas deployment.

(iv) Bypass door shall be provided in the event where there are occupants inside A-FAMCP during gas deployment.

(v) Firefighters shall be able to activate the clean agent manually if the system was not activated during a fire.

(m) Sump pit shall be provided to contain water discharge from sprinkler system. The capacity of the sump put shall be based on simultaneous operation of sprinklers for 4 car park decks for duration of 20 mins. Foam inlet in accordance to Cl.6.2.7 shall be provided adjacent to the sump pit to address liquid fire (burning fuel on water).

(n) For A-FAMCP protected by sprinkler systems, ventilation openings (with exhaust air outlet sited at high level and fresh air inlet sited at low level) of at least 2.5% of the largest floor area of any car parking level shall be provided. It shall be operated automatically by activation of sprinklers or heat detectors, if such openings are not naturally ventilated.

(o) For A-FAMCP protected by clean agent systems, ventilation openings (with exhaust air outlet sited at high level and fresh air inlet sited at low level) of at least 2.5% of the largest floor area of any car parking level shall be provided. It shall be operated manually by firefighters.

(p) Addressable heat detectors shall be installed according to SS CP 10 and provided to every parking deck to assist firefighters in identifying the exact location of the car on fire. Each addressable heat detector shall be represented by its own LED indicator and shall be displayed at the sub-alarm panel according to their locations/levels. Sub-alarm panel shall be provided at the entrance on FAMCP.

(q) Thermocouple reading for every parking level shall be provided as a means for firefighters to identify if the fire has been effectively extinguished. No point in the FAMCP shall exceed 10m from a thermocouple. A panel to display temperature readings shall be installed adjacent to sub-alarm panel.

(r) The deck to deck height shall be at least 2.2m.

(s) Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) shall be provided and maintained in a clearly marked cabinet for maintenance personnel. Maintenance personnel must be equipped with SCBA while working in A-FAMCP. Signage with words minimum 50mm shall be clearly visible and state: “Personnel must be equipped with SCBA during maintenance”

(t) A-FAMCP shall be maintained and inspected yearly or at intervals specified by the individual system suppliers, whichever is shorter.

g. Category 3 fire safety requirements for underground fully automated mechanised car park (U – FAMCP)

All U-FAMCPs shall be subjected to the Fire Certificate scheme. The specific fire safety requirements for the U-FAMCP shall be as follows:

(1) The compartmentation of the U-FAMCP shall not exceed the following sizes:

TABLE 9.8.5g.(1) : COMPARTMENTATION OF U-FAMCP

Maximum Parking Depth

Maximum Floor Area

Cubical Extent

28m

2000m2

(Total area of car parking decks)

7000m3

(2) The U-FAMCP shall be constructed on structural steel construction. Fire resistance to element of structure shall be provided according to Cl.3.3.

(3) The vertical fire separation between the upper and lower decks by using non-perforated and non-combustible materials (structural steel plate) shall be provided.

R Rationale - Clause 9.8.5g.(3)

This is to minimise direct impingement of flame to the car on the upper deck and also to prevent dripping of any possible leaking fuel to the lower deck.

(4) The U-FAMCP shall be provided with the following firefighting provisions:

(a) all exit staircases shall conform to the requirements of Cl.2.3.3;

(b) smoke-free approach as stated in Cl.2.2.13 and Cl.2.2.14;

(c) fire doors of at least 1-hr fire resistance rating for the access of firefighters via the staircase into the car park;

(d) the number of exit staircases provided shall depend on the number of rising mains. Each rising main serving every car parking level shall provide the following coverage:

(i) where internal access to every car parking deck is provided:

• an access platform of minimum width of 900mm shall be provided and shall be constructed with at least 1-hr fire resistance rating with handrails provided on both sides; and

R Rationale - Clause 9.8.5g.(4)(d)(i)

Handrails provided on both sides will help to prevent falls of firefighters during the firefighting operation.

• no part of any car parking deck shall exceed 28m.

(ii) where no internal access to every car parking deck is provided, the maximum distance measured from the staircase door to the most remote part of the car parking deck shall not exceed 8m.

(e) Breeching inlet serving rising main shall be located within a travel distance of 18m from the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road.

(f) Dry rising main shall be provided for height exceeding 10m and up to 60m. When the height exceeds 60m, wet rising main shall be provided. The breeching inlet shall be located at the foot of the riser stack. One standby fire hose shall be provided at the ground level of each exit staircase.

(g) Fire lift shall be provided for basement depth exceeding 9m.

(h) Where fire lift is required, a two-way emergency voice communication system shall be provided between the FCC and the following areas:

(i) every fire lift lobby, including first storey; and

(ii) all firefighting-related mechanical equipment rooms, inclusive of sprinkler pump room, wet riser pump room etc..

(i) FCC shall be provided in accordance with Cl.8.2.4.

(j) Basement levels shall be provided with two-way emergency voice communication system in accordance with Cl.8.2.2.

(5) Private fire hydrant where required shall be provided in accordance with Cl.4.4.

(6) Fire engine access road to be provided to gain access to the exit staircases.

(7) The U-FAMCP shall be protected by sprinklers or clean agent fire extinguishing systems.

(a) Where sprinkler protection is installed, it shall be in accordance with SS CP 52. Quick response sprinklers shall be provided. Each parking deck shall be protected by at least one sprinkler head.

(b) Where clean agent fire extinguishing systems are installed, they shall comply with NFPA 2001. The amount of agent required to achieve the design concentration shall be based on total flooding method.

(i) Standby cylinders at 100% capacity shall be provided on site;

(ii) All doors, shutters, dampers, and/or openings shall be closed throughout the duration of gas deployment;

(iii) Bypass door shall be provided in the event there are occupants inside U-FAMCP during gas deployment; and

(iv) Firefighters shall be able to activate the clean agent manually if the system was not activated during fire.

(c) Foam inlet in accordance to Cl.6.2.7 shall be provided to address liquid fire (burning fuel on water).

(8) Sump pit shall be provided to contain water discharge from the sprinkler system. The capacity of the sump pit shall be based on simultaneous operation of sprinklers for four car park decks. Foam inlet in accordance to Cl.6.2.7 shall be provided adjacent to the sump pit to address liquid fire (burning fuel on water).

(9) Smoke vents shall apply to basements not exceeding 1000m2 in floor area and maximum 5m in depth measured from the ground level area to the lowest floor level.

(a) For U-FAMCP protected by sprinkler systems, ventilation openings (with exhaust air outlet sited at high level and fresh air inlet sited at low level) of at least 2.5% of the largest floor area of any car parking level shall be provided. It shall be operated automatically by activation of sprinklers or heat detectors, if such openings are not naturally ventilated.

(b) For U-FAMCP protected by clean agent fire extinguishing systems, ventilation openings (with exhaust air outlet sited at high level and fresh air sited at low level) of at least 2.5% of the largest floor area of any parking level shall be provided. It shall be operated manually by firefighters. Smoke purging systems of 9 air changes per hour shall be provided if the basement exceeds 1000m2 in floor area or 5m in depth measured from the ground level area to the lowest floor level.

(c) For U-FAMCP protected by sprinkler systems, the smoke purging systems shall be operated automatically by activation of heat detectors.

(d) For U-FAMCP protected by clean agent fire extinguishing systems, smoke purging systems shall be operated manually by firefighters.

(10) Detection systems shall be installed as follows:

(a) Addressable heat detectors shall be installed according to SS CP 10 and provided to every parking deck to assist firefighters in identifying the exact location of the car on fire. Each addressable heat detector shall be represented by its own LED light indicator and shall be displayed at the sub-alarm panel in accordance to their locations/ levels. Sub-alarm panels shall be provided at the entrance of U-FAMCP.

(b) Thermocouple for every parking level shall be provided such that no point in the U-FAMCP shall exceed 10m from a thermocouple. A panel to display temperature readings shall be installed adjacent to the sub-alarm panel.

(11) The deck-to-deck height shall be at least 2.2m.

(12) Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) shall be provided and maintained in a clearly marked cabinet for maintenance personnel. Maintenance personnel must be equipped with SCBA while working in U-FAMCP. Signage with words minimum 50mm shall be clearly visible and state: “Personnel must be equipped with SCBA during maintenance”.

(13) U-FAMCP shall be maintained and inspected yearly or at intervals specified by the individual system suppliers, whichever is shorter.

TABLE 9.8A : COMPARTMENT SIZE & STORAGE HEIGHT FOR GENERAL WAREHOUSE

Location of Warehouse

Item

Sprinkler- protected

Non-sprinkler-protected

Storage Hazard

Storage Hazard

All

Normal

High

Single storey warehouse

Max. floor area per compartment

12000m2

3000m2

2000m2

Max. cubical extent per compartment

NC

12000m3

7500m3

Max. storage height

18m

+Ref Table 9.8D & E

12m

Warehouse located on 1st storey of multi-storey warehouse

Max. floor area per compartment

12000m2

3000m2

2000m2

Max. cubical extent per compartment

NC

12000m3

7500m3

Max. storage height

15m

+Ref Table 9.8D & E

12m

Multi-storey warehouse with vehicular ramp (min. loading 30 tonnes with dry rising mains)

Max. floor area per compartment

9000m2

3000m2

2000m2

Max. cubical extent per compartment

NC

12000m3

7500m3

Max. storage height

15m

+Ref Table 9.8D & E

12m

Multi-storey warehouse without vehicular ramp

Max. floor area per compartment

6000m2

3000m2

2000m2

Max. cubical extent per compartment

NC

12000m3

7500m3

Max. storage height

15m

+Ref Table

9.8D & E

12m

Warehouse located in basement

Max. floor area per compartment

3000m2

NP

NP

Max. cubical extent per compartment

12000m3

NP

NP

Max. storage height

12m

NP

NP

Note :

NC = No Control

NP = Not Permit

* = Subject to full compliance of Cl.3.2.7a. and Cl.1.4.67d.

+ = Storage height not exceeding the limits for goods in the various categories suitable for ordinary hazard protection (you may also refer to Table 9.8D & 9.8E

TABLE 9.8B : SMOKE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL WAREHOUSE

Location of Warehouse

Compartment Size

Provision of Sprinkler System

Smoke Control Requirement

Aboveground level

<= 100m2

no

NR

> 100m2  and <= 400m2

no

aSmoke vent

(min % openings follow Table 2A)

> 400m2  to size limit of

Table 1

no

bSmoke vent (20% / 12m)

<= 700m2

yes

NR

> 700m2  and <= 5000m2

yes

cSmoke vent or

+purging system

> 5000m2

yes

engineered smoke

control system

Underground level

(*Basement)

<= 2000m2

yes

cSmoke vent or +purging

system

> 2000m2

yes

engineered smoke

control system

Note:

NR = Not Required

a = smoke vent openings base on the Table 9.8C;

b = smoke vent shall be at least 20% of the floor area it served and shall not be more than 12m measured horizontally away from any part of the warehouse;

c = smoke vent shall comply with Cl.7.4.2 (adequately & evenly distributed along the perimeter of the fire compartment or basement);

+ = smoke purging system shall comply with Cl.7.4.3 (adequately & evenly distributed within the fire compartment or basement);

* = smoke control system shall be provided for the entire basement except the protected exit shafts, lift shafts and M&E riser shafts.

TABLE 9.8C : SMOKE VENT REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-SPRINKLER-PROTECTED BUILDING

Minimum size of smoke vent opening

Horizontal distance from smoke vent*

(Percentage of floor area)

(m)

2.5%

12m

5.0%

15m

10.0%

18m

15.0%

21m

20.0%

24m

Note :

* = No area in the warehouse shall be more than the indicated distance measured horizontally from any vertical or horizontal smoke vent

TABLE 9.8D : HIGH-PILED STORAGE RISK INVOLVING FREE-STANDING STORAGE OR BLOCK STACKING

[Extract from TABLE 21(A) of SS CP 52]

Category of storage

Overall stack height (m)

Non-encapsulated storage

Encapsulated storage

1

4.0

3.00

2

3.0

2.25

3

2.1

1.60

4

1.2

0.90

Note:

1. The term “store” or “storage” includes the warehousing or the temporary depositing of goods or materials while undergoing process.

2. To provide for any future requirements, the height of storage shall be taken as not less than 1m below any ceiling or roof.

TABLE 9.8E : HIGH-PILED STORAGE RISK INVOLVING POST OR BOX PALLETS OR PALLETISED RACK STORAGE

[Extract from TABLE 21(B) of SS CP 52]

Category of storage

Overall stack height (m)

Non-encapsulated storage

Encapsulated storage

1

3.5

2.7

2

2.6

2.0

3

1.7

1.3

4

1.2

0.9

Note :

1. To provide for any future requirements, the height of storage shall be taken as not less than 1m below any ceiling or roof.

2. Good practice dictates that box or post pallet storage shall not exceed 2 rows wide in one direction.

3. Rack storage with aisles less than 1.2m in width is treated as multiple row racks.

TABLE 9.8F : IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Class

Type of HazMat

1

Explosives (1.1 to 1.6)

2.1

Flammable gases

2.2

Non-flammable compressed gases

2.3

Poisonous gases

3

Flammable and combustible liquids

4.1

Flammable solids

4.2

Substances liable to spontaneous combustion

4.3

Substances which, dangerous when contact with water

5.1

Oxidizers

5.2

Organic peroxides

6.1

Poisonous substances

6.2

Infectious substances (etiologic agents)

7

Radioactive materials Category I

Radioactive materials Category II

Radioactive materials Category III

8

Corrosive materials

9

Miscellaneous hazardous materials (dangerous sub-substances)

TABLE 9.8G : SIZE LIMITATION

Hazard Grade#

Maximum Fire Compartment Size (m²)

K1*

K2*

K3*

K4*

3 & 4

≤ 50m2

≤ 200m2

≤ 600m2

≤ 900m2

2

≤ 100m2

≤ 400m2

≤ 2400m2

≤ 3600m2

1

≤ 400m2

≤ 2000m2

**

**

Note :

(1) The required fire protection system is only restricted to the chemical/HazMat warehouse fire compartment. However, automatic fire detectors (linked to approved alarm monitoring company) shall also be provided along the perimeter of the fire compartment wall if the building housing the HazMat warehouse is not protected with the automatic or the sprinkler system (it is only applicable where the warehouse is directly connected to other occupied area within the building through access opening);

(2)  The fire compartment wall shall be constructed with at least 2-hr fire resistance rating, regardless of the type of fire protection system. For Class 3 HazMat storage, it shall be masonry construction except the ceiling (all floor element above such HazMat storage shall be masonry construction with at least 2-hr fire resistance rating) can use fire-rated board but to comply fully with the M&E riser shaft requirements;

(3) Different classes and incompatible HazMat shall be stored in separate fire compartment with at least 2-hr fire resistance rating;

(4) No basement floor is allowed to store Hazardous materials;

(5) The compartment size limit and type of fire protection system for Class 2 HazMat shall follow Hazard Grade 1 requirements;

(6) Fire-rated roller shutter is not allowed for the purpose to limit the compartment size control; any fire-rated roller shutter at the access opening shall be activated by either local automatic smoke detection system or/and the general building automatic fire alarm system;

 

**  =  No specific limit but to comply with the fire safety requirements for general warehouse.

* =  Refer to Table 9.8H for classification of fire protection system

# =  Refer to Table 9.8I for hazard grade classification

TABLE 9.8H : CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

CLASS

Fire Protection System

Type

Monitoring

K1

Manual fire alarm system

To be connected to an approved alarm monitoring company

K2

Automatic fire alarm system

To be connected to an approved alarm monitoring company

K3

Automatic fire sprinkler system

To be connected to an approved alarm monitoring company

K4

Automatic foam sprinkler system

To be connected to an approved alarm monitoring company

TABLE 9.8I : HAZARD GRADE CLASSIFICATION

Hazard

Classification

Hazard Grade

4

3

2

1

0

Liquids

Class 3

Category

I & 2

Category 3

Category 4

Flash point > 150°C

Only burns with supporting fire

Flash point < 23°C

Flash point 23 - 60°C

Flash point 60 - 150°C

Solid Materials

Class 4

Ignites very easily and burns rapidly

Ignites and burns rapidly

Readily combustible

Moderately combustible

Combustible only with supporting fire

Oxidizing

Agent

Class 5.1

Class 4

Class 3

Class 2

-

-

Vary strong oxidizing agent (may be classified under explosive substance)

Strong oxidizing agent

Weak oxidizing agent

Oxidizing Peroxide

Class 5.2

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Class V

TABLE 9.8J : PROVISION OF FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY

Cubical Extent

Minimum Length of Fire Engine Acessway*

Non-sprinkler-protected

Sprinkler-protected

< 7100m³

⅙   perimeter

 perimeter

> 7100m³ and < 14200m³

¼ perimeter

> 14200m³ and < 28400m³

½ perimeter

¼ perimeter

> 28400m³ and < 42400m³

¾ perimeter

½ perimeter

> 42400m³ and < 56800m³

island site access

¾ perimeter

> 56800m³

island site access

Note :

* = Length of fire engine accessway shall be as shown or 15m, whichever is the greater.

TABLE 9.8K : MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES (MAQ)

IN LABORATORY FOR LIQUID

Laboratory Unit

Max Quantity (excluding qty in cabinet)

Max Quantity (including qty in cabinet)

(litres per lab unit floor area)

(litres per lab unit floor

area)

Laboratory not within hospital or healthcare occupancy

(a) 50L or

(b) 1.6 L/m2 and not more than:

(1) 350 L for non-sprinkler-protected building, or

(2) 500 L for sprinkler- protected building)

3.2 L/m2 and not more than:

(1) 750 L for non-sprinkler-protected building, or

(2) 1000 L for sprinkler-protected building)

1. liquids stored/used do not consist of category 1 or 2 flammable liquid

2. liquids stored / used consist of category  1 or 2 flammable liquid

(a) 20 L or

(b) 0.8 L/m2 and not more than:

(1) 250 L for non-sprinkler-protected building, or

(2) 350 L for sprinkler- protected building)

1.6 L/m2 and not more than:

(1) 500 L for non-sprinkler-protected building, or

(2) 750 L for sprinkler-protected building)

Laboratory within hospital

or healthcare occupancy

(a) 10 L or

(b) 0.4 L/m² and not more than:

(1) 150 L for non-sprinkler-protected building, or

(2) 250 L for sprinkler- protected building)

0.8 L/m² and not more than:

(1) 250 L for non-sprinkler- protected building, or

(2) 500 L for sprinkler-protected building)

1. liquids stored/used do not consist of category 1 or 2 flammable liquid

2.     liquids stored/used consist of category  1 or 2 flammable liquid

(a) 5 L or

(b) 0.4 L/m² and not more than:

(1) 150L for non-sprinkler- protected building, or

(2) 250 L for sprinkler- protected building)

0.8 L/m² and not more than:

(1) 250 L for non-sprinkler- protected building, or

(2) 500 L for sprinkler-protected building)

Note :

(1) Individual lab unit shall be a fire compartment;

(2)  Each safety cabinet is still restricted to max of 250L (to comply with SS 532);

(3) Laboratory operators are strongly advised and encouraged to minimise their amount of flammable liquids on benches by returning them to chemical store or safety cabinets (UL, FM or PLS listed product) when the liquids are not needed for the day. The quantity of these liquids placed on benches and fume cupboards shall not exceed 10% of the total allowable storage capacity within the lab unit. Liquids used for running and operating laboratory instruments or other works-in- progress which may require some quantities of solvents to operate are exempted from the 10% limit.

TABLE 9.8L : MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES (MAQ) IN LABORATORY FOR GASES

Item

Types of Gases

Maximum Quantity

(litres per lab unit floor area protected by sprinkler system)

1

Flammable gases

(a) 170 L or

(b) 3.4 L/mper cluster

2

Oxidizing gases

(a) 170 L or

(b) 3.4 L/m2 per cluster

3

Liquefied flammable gases*

(a) 30 L or

(b) 0.6 L/m2 per cluster

4

Toxic gases

(a) 8 L or

(b) 0.16 L/m2 per cluster

Note :

(1) The capacity in litres (L) is referred to the internal volume (water capacity) of the gas cylinder;

(2) Laboratory work Area is not necessary be individual fire compartment but shall be housed within a lab unit;

(3) For item 1 to 3, the MAQ shall be halved for those building which is not protected with sprinkler system;

(4) Item 1 to 4 may be accommodated in a single cluster and be spaced at least 3m apart from each cluster (6m for building without sprinkler protection);

(5) To comply with NFPA 45 for others requirements such as the ventilation (4 & 8 air changes), hazard identification and” No Smoking” signs etc.;

(6) The provision of sprinkler system shall be designed under the Ordinary Hazard Group 3 Special (SS CP 52);

(7) No combustible materials shall be placed within 3m buffer range of the gas cylinder;

(8) No flammable or combustible liquid shall be placed within 6m buffer range of the gas cylinder;

(9) For storage and handling of Class 2 HazMat in enclosed space (including the concealed space of raised floor and ceiling), metal pipe sleeve and gas leak detection system shall be provided to reduce the accumulation of gases and vapours that may cause danger to occupant, building and emergency response team. Oxygen-level monitoring system shall be provided to prevent the possibility of oxygen-deletion (asphyxiation) within the room;

(10) The air-conditioning system and MV system for laboratory unit shall not be shared with other occupied areas.

* = For LPG cylinders, only 2 x 4.5kg cylinders are allowed for each lab unit.