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Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history Print

Clause 9.7 - PURPOSE GROUP VII OCCUPANCY

9.7.1 General

(Not in use)

9.7.2 Hotels, boarding houses, serviced apartments, hostels & backpacker hotels

a. Access through an internal corridor

Guestrooms or accommodation units with access through an internal corridor shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(1) Each guestroom or accommodation unit shall be compartmented from adjoining rooms and other parts of the same building, including the internal corridor, by construction having fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.2a.(1)

In the event of fire within a guestroom, the compartmentation provided to each room will help to contain the fire and prevent it from spreading to other rooms. It will also safeguard the internal common corridor for occupants to access to protected exit staircases.

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(2) Doors opening into internal corridors shall have fire resistance of at least half an hour and fitted with automatic self-closing device to comply with the requirements of Cl.3.9.2.

(3) The common internal corridor shall have ventilation openings of not less than 15% of the floor area and located not more than 9m from any part of the common internal corridor. Internal corridors which cannot be naturally ventilated shall be pressurised to comply with the requirements in Chapter 7.

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(4) Other rooms or spaces which open into or form part of the guestroom or accommodation unit corridor which can jeopardise the means of escape shall be required to be compartmented to the same extent as the guestroom or accommodation unit.

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b. Access through an external corridor

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Guestrooms or accommodation units with access through an external corridor shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(1) Each guestroom or accommodation unit shall be compartmented from adjoining rooms and other parts of the same building by construction having fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour, unless otherwise permitted under Cl.2.3.10 for the provision of window openings between the guestroom or accommodation unit and external corridor.

(2) Doors opening into the external corridor need not have fire resistance rating.

(3) The external corridor shall comply with Cl.2.3.10.

c. Measurement of travel distance

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The travel distance shall be measured from the most remote point of a guestroom or accommodation unit or suite to the exit door of an exit staircase, exit passageway or external space.

d. Spacing of smoke barrier

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(1) Internal corridors which are not naturally-ventilated shall be subdivided by smoke barriers into the following lengths:

(a) Building protected by sprinkler system - 45m, or

(b) Building not protected by sprinkler system - 30m

(2) Smoke barriers shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(a) The smoke barriers shall consist of non-combustible partitions containing smoke check doors. The smoke barriers, including the enclosing walls to the corridor, shall be constructed to full height, carried right up to form a close joint with the soffit of the floor slab above, or an imperforate non-combustible ceiling or the roof coverings.

(b) The smoke barriers shall be sited at suitable locations across the corridor to create multiple sections, with each having free and direct access to an exit or exit staircase, exit passageway or exit ramp.

(c) Smoke-check doors excluding glass doors, shall be provided with clear glass vision panels having at least 25% of the surface area of each door leaf.

(d) Smoke-check doors shall be of the self-closing, swinging type. Double swing type is permitted provided that the door opening is closed completely with such clearance as is reasonably necessary for proper operation. The doors shall be closely fitted around their edges and the bottom clearance gap between such doors and the floor shall not exceed 4mm.

(e) Smoke-check doors shall normally be in the closed position. However, they can be left open if they are arranged to close automatically by an approved electromagnetic or electromechanical device which can be activated by the presence of smoke and/or the building fire alarm system.

R Rationale - Clause

The main function of smoke-check door is to prevent the whole internal corridor being filled with smoke very quickly should there be migration of smoke from any of the guestroom to the corridor. Hence, it would act as a physical barrier dividing the corridor into separate zones against smoke migration.

e. Visual alarm system

At least 10% of the guestrooms or accommodation units shall be provided with visual alarms.

9.7.3 Assembly occupancy

a. General

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Number and minimum width of exits for assembly occupancies shall comply with the provisions tabulated as follows:

TABLE 9.7.3a. : MINIMUM WIDTH OF EXITS FOR ASSEMBLY OCCUPANICIES

No. of Occupants

Min No. of Doors

Min width of corridors

51 - 200

2

1.20m

201 - 500

2

1.25m

501 - 1000

3

1.25m

exceeding 1000

4

1.25m

b. Assembly occupancy with fixed seating (Performance theatres, Cinemas, Auditoriums, Concert Halls, etc.)

(1) Aisles and gangways

(a) clear aisles or gangways of not less than the minimum width of corridors shall be provided around the auditorium, stalls and balconies leading to doors or exit doors;

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(b) aisles or gangways shall be provided with intersecting rows of seating and the number of seats in a row shall be in accordance with the provisions tabulated as follows:

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.3b.(1)(b)

The seatway provides the initial part of an escape route and hence it needs to be of sufficient width, depending on the number of seat it serves, to enable easy movement towards the gangway(s).

TABLE 9.7.3b.(1)(b) : NUMBER OF SEATS IN A ROW

Seatway width

mm

Maximum no. of seats in a row

Gangway on one side

Gangway on two sides

300 - 324

7

14

325 - 349

8

16

350 - 374

9

18

375 - 399

10

20

400 - 424

11

22

425 - 449

12

24

450 - 474

12

26

475 - 499

12

28

500 or more

12

Limited by the travel distance

The seatway shall be the minimum clear width between rows, which shall not be less than 300mm, measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of the row ahead (including seats that tip up automatically) and the nearest projection of the row behind when the seats are in upright position. The seatway widths shall be constant throughout the length of the row. (See Diagram 9.7.3b.(1)(b) - 1 and 2)

(c) for changes of level, steps shall not be used to overcome differences in level in aisles or gangways unless the slope of such gangways exceeds 1 in 10;

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(d) handrails shall be provided, where steps of a pitch exceeding 30º or ramps of a slope exceeding 1 in 10 are provided in aisles or gangways flanking the seating;

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(e) flooring for the surface of steps and ramps forming the aisles or gangways shall be finished using non-slip materials; and

(f) illumination of steps shall be such that each step is clearly visible in the event of emergency.

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.3b.(1)(f)

Emergency lighting will light up the escape route to alert the public of the presence of steps. Such arrangement will help to prevent tripping.

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(g) Combustible seats for cinemas, theatre, auditorium, etc.

The construction of combustible upholstered seats in cinema, theatre, auditorium, etc. shall comply with BS 5852 in respect of the following testing standard:

(i) Smouldering Ignition Source;

(ii) Flaming Ignition Source 1; and

(iii) Crib Ignition Source 5.

(2) Exits from a theatre, cinema or a concert hall

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(a) The number and capacity of exits from an enclosed space in an assembly occupancy used or intended for use as cinema, concert hall, auditorium, performance theatre that is not normally provided with natural ventilation and lighting, shall be provided its own means of escape without having to take into account exits provided for its adjoining parts of the same building in which it is housed. Exception can be permitted where the occupancy load does not exceed 200 persons, in which case at least half the capacity of exits shall be provided within the compartment.

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.3b.(2)(a)

The occupants getting out of the theatre during an emergency are likely to be disorientated. The spillage of occupants outside the theatre should be within very close distance, if not immediately adjacent to it, so as to serve its purpose.

(b) Where a building or part of a building is designed as a cineplex to house multiple mini-cinemas, the means of escape to be provided can be shared by all the mini-cinemas. Each cineplex shall be treated as a single big cinema for the purpose of determining the exit requirements under Cl.9.7.3b.(2).

(c) The exits adjacent or attached to cinema, theatre or concert hall and the like can be shared as exits with the other parts of the building, provided the exits are accessible from the common circulation areas. The occupancy load of the cinema, theatre, concert hall and the like does not exceed 200 persons.

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.3b.(2)(c)

With the positioning of exit next to the small size cinema, theatre etc., it would help to maintain effective evacuation even with the sharing of the staircase with evacuees from the other occupancy areas on the same storey.

(3) Separation of theatre, cinema or concert hall from other parts of the building

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A theatre, cinema or concert hall shall be separated from other parts of the same building, which is of a different purpose group, by compartment walls and floors having a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours. If the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the fire resistance rating of the compartment walls or floors can be reduced to 1 hour. Where openings are provided for access between the theatre, cinema or concert hall and any other part of the same building of a different purpose group, the openings shall either be protected by fire doors having the necessary fire resistance rating as the enclosing walls or floors, or be provided with lobby which complies with the following requirements:

(a) The lobby is enclosed by walls having fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour, is naturally ventilated complying with the requirements for ventilation of smoke-free lobbies, or mechanically ventilated to comply with the requirements in Chapter 7; and

(b) All doors to the lobby shall each have fire resistance rating of at least ½ hour and fitted with an automatic self-closing device.

(4) Separation by proscenium wall in theatres or concert halls

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(a) In a place of public resort, such as theatres, and concert halls, capable of seating more than 500 persons and in which fly tower is used for stage scenery or when extensive stage scenery is installed on the stage side, the stage shall be separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall of at least 1-hr fire resistance rating in such a way that the stage and the audience seating area form separate compartments.

(b) The entire stage side of the proscenium wall shall be fitted with an automatic sprinkler system which complies with the requirements in Chapter 6.

(c) The proscenium opening shall be protected by fire curtain with fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour, automatically operated by a fusible link or a smoke detector. In lieu of fire curtain, a smoke curtain is acceptable, if engineered smoke control and automatic sprinkler systems are to be provided to the stage area.

(d) Not more than three other openings can be provided in the proscenium wall. Such openings shall not exceed 2m2 in area and shall be fitted with doors having fire resistance rating of at least ½ hour and fitted with an automatic self-closing device.

(5) Smoke control system

R Rationale - Clause 9.7.3b.(5)

Adequate smoke vents facilitate effective dispersion of smoke to external of building, thereby minimising the risk of a smoke-logged situation in an auditorium. These dimensions have been validated through a fire engineering study.

(a) Multi-tier/level seating auditorium shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system and engineered smoke control system. For single tier/level seating auditorium that is either sprinkler-protected or non sprinkler-protected, smoke vents complying with the following criteria can be provided in lieu of engineered smoke control system:

(i) at least 2.5% of the floor area;

(ii) at least 600mm X 600mm in size;

(iii) adequately distributed such that no part of the auditorium is more than 12m from any ventilation opening;

(iv) located at high level close to soffit of the ceiling or within a perforated ceiling space; and

(v) activated by automatic device.

(b) Exception:

Lecture theatres and the like are exempted from the requirement to provide smoke vents, provided they fulfil all of the following criteria:

(i) without stage curtain, fly tower, props, and back stage areas;

(ii) used solely for the conduct of lessons;

(iii) not located below ground level; and

(iv) not exceeding 5000m2 in size.

9.7.4 Outdoor Refreshment Areas (ORAs)

a. General

! Note to QPs on Clause 9.7.4a

Application for approval of fire safety plans for ORA shall be required, except for ORAs which comply fully to the following conditions:

a. An escape route of width not less than 1.2m along the covered walkway is provided.

b. Entrance of the F&B outlet is not blocked by tables(s), chair(s) or any form of obstruction.

c. For F&B outlet located next to an exit staircase, no table(s), chair(s) or any form of obstruction is to encroach onto the escape path from exit staircase discharge point to the external space.

d. For F&B outlet using umbrellas for its ORA, the size of umbrella is not more than 2m in diameter or 2m x 2m and the set back of umbrellas from the building line (eaves of building) is not less than 1.5m.

(1) This set of fire safety requirements shall be applicable to all food and beverage (F&B) outlets where ORAs are permitted by the authority have jurisdiction. F&B outlets shall include eating houses, restaurants, coffee shops, hawker centres, fast food outlets, cafeterias, canteens, pubs, bars and the like.

(2) The total occupant load within each F&B outlet shall not exceed 200 persons. Where the limit is exceeded, alternate rear exit opening directly into a back lane or safe external space shall be provided.

(3) Where an ORA encroaches on neighbouring property(s) or state land, it is the responsibility of the F&B’s owner/operator to seek no objection from the property owner(s) for the setting up of the ORA on his property.

b. Fire safety requirements for ORAs

(1) ORAs along covered walkway

(a) A five-foot way of width not less than 1.2m shall be provided along the covered walkway. Tables and chairs shall be abutting the F&B shop front or located at the outer edge of the building within the covered walkway. The entrance of the F&B outlet shall not be blocked.

(b) For F&B outlet located next to an exit staircase, a clear escape path from the staircase discharge point to external space shall be maintained. The width of the escape path shall not be less than the width of the exit staircase. No table(s), chair(s) or any form of obstruction shall encroach onto this escape path at all times.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(1))

(2) ORAs open to the sky

(a) There is no limit to the number of table(s) or chair(s) placed in areas open to the sky, subject to compliance to other authorities having jurisdiction.

(b) When placement of table(s) or chair(s) is extended to any covered walkway, the requirements stipulated under Cl.9.7.4b.(1) shall be complied with.

(c) There is no control on the size/height of the ODAs and the materials used for displaying goods at the ODAs. There shall be no encroachment of table(s), chair(s) or any form of obstruction on the escape path from the exit staircase discharge point to external space. The portion of covered ORAs beyond the building lines and abutting the escape path shall be demarcated from the escape path with a red colour line of width not less than 50mm. Red colour wordings, “NO OBSTRUCTION OF EXIT”, of height not less than 100mm shall be marked along the line at regular intervals of not more than 1.5m.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(2))

(3) ORA with umbrellas

(a) When umbrellas are used to provide shelter for diners, its size shall not be larger than 2m in diameter or 2m x 2m. The umbrellas shall be placed at a distance of not less than 1.5m from the building line (eaves of building).

(b) There shall be no limit on the number of umbrellas placed in areas open to the sky. A separation distance of not less than 1.5m shall be provided between rows of umbrella. There shall be no roofing between rows of umbrellas.

(c) Where placement of table(s), chair(s) or any form of obstruction is extended to any covered walkway, the requirements stipulated under Cl.9.7.4b.(1) shall be complied with.

(d) There shall be no encroachment of table(s), chair(s) or umbrella(s) or any form of obstruction on the escape path from the exit staircase discharge point to external space. Where umbrellas are placed close to the exit staircase discharge path, Cl.9.7.4b.(2)(c) shall be complied with.

(e) Umbrella having dimensions larger than 2m in diameter or 2m x 2m shall be treated as canopy/awning. Hence, requirements stipulated under Cl.9.7.4b.(4) shall be complied with.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(3))

(4) ORAs with canopy/awning

(a) There shall be no encroachment of table(s) or chair(s) or any form of obstruction onto the escape path from the exit staircase discharge point to the external space. This path beyond the building façade shall be clearly demarcated as per Cl.9.7.4b.(2)(c).

(b) For canopy/awning with projection not exceeding 1m

(i) No separation between the canopy/awning and the nearer edge of the exit staircase discharge path is required.

(ii) The high/low separation requirements stipulated under Cl.3.5.7 need not be complied with.

(iii) The requirements on set back of unprotected openings from building/notional boundary stipulated under Cl.3.5.3 need not be complied with.

(iv) Placement of table(s) or chair(s) beneath the canopy/awning is permitted.

(v) The canopy/awning can be continuous and cover the exit staircase discharge path. Separation between the canopy/ awning of the F&B outlet and those of the neighbouring units is not required.

(vi) There shall be no control on the material of the canopy/ awning.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(b))

(c) For canopy/awning with projection greater than 1m but not exceeding 2m

(i) A minimum separation distance of 500mm between the canopy/awning and the nearer edge of the exit staircase discharge path shall be maintained and shall only be exempted if the awning/canopy is designed to retract automatically when fire/smoke is detected within the F&B unit or its ORA.

(ii) The high/low separation requirements stipulated under Cl.3.5.7 shall be complied with.

(iii) The requirements on set back of unprotected openings from building/notional boundary stipulated under Cl.3.5.3 shall be complied with.

(iv) At least 500mm separation distance shall be maintained between the canopy/awning of the F&B outlet and the projection line of the separating wall and shall only be exempted if the awning/canopy is designed to retract automatically when fire/smoke is detected within the F&B unit or its ORA.

(v) For auto-retractable canopy/awning as mentioned in C1.9.7.4b.(4)(c)(i), the canopy/awning can be continuous and cover the exit staircase discharge path and separation between the canopy/awning of the F&B outlet and those of the neighbouring units is not required.

(vi) The surface flame spread rating of the canopy/awning shall be at least Class 2.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(c) - 1 & 2)

(d) For canopy/awning with projection greater than 2m but not exceeding 3m

(i) A minimum separation distance of 500mm between the canopy/awning and the nearer edge of the exit staircase discharge path shall be maintained.

(ii) The high/low separation requirements stipulated in Cl.3.5.7 shall be complied with.

(iii) The requirement on set back of unprotected openings from building/notional boundary stipulated under Cl.3.5.3 shall be complied with.

(iv) At least 500mm separation distance shall be maintained between the canopy/awning of the F&B outlet and the projection line of the separating wall.

(v) The surface flame spread rating of the canopy/awning shall be at least Class 1.

(See Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(d))

(e) For canopy/awning with projection exceeding 3m

All relevant requirements stipulated in this Code shall be complied with.

(5) Other fire safety requirements

(a) There shall be no open-flame cooking in ORAs, except those open to the sky.

(b) For buildings which are installed with automatic fire sprinkler system, the sprinkler protection shall be extended to protected the covered ORAs.

(c) Every part of covered ORAs shall be within the coverage of fire hose reel(s).

(d) Approval of fire safety plans.

9.7.3b1

Diagram 9.7.3b.(1)(b) - 1 : Seatway width and number of seats in a row

9.7.3b2

Diagram 9.7.3b.(1)(b) - 2 : Determination of seatway width

9.7.4b1

Diagram 9.7.4b.(1) : ORAs along covered walkway

9.7.4b2

Diagram 9.7.4b.(2) : ORAs open to sky

9.7.4b3

Diagram 9.7.4b.(3) : ORAs with umbrella


9.7.4b4b

Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(b) : ORAs with canopy/awning projection not exceeding 1m

9.7.4b4c1

Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(c) - 1 : ORAs with canopy/awning projection greater than 1m but not exceeding 2m - (without auto retraction)

9.7.4b4c2

Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(c) - 2 : ORAs with canopy/awning projection greater than 1m but not exceeding 2m - (with auto retraction)

9.7.4b4d

Diagram 9.7.4b.(4)(d) : ORAs with canopy/awning projection greater than 2m but not exceeding 3m