• 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

  • Fire Hazard Reporting

    1800 280 0000

  • General Enquiries

    1800 286 5555

  • 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history

1.4 - Definitions

In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires, the following definitions will apply.

1.4.1 Accessible Floor Area (AFA)

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019

“Accessible floor area” refers to the total floor area of all covered spaces within a building, including service ducts, lift shafts, toilets, staircases, areas occupied by fixed/ moveable furniture/equipment/facilities, and any open-to-sky habitable areas above or below the first storey of the building.

1.4.2 Air well


“Air well” refers to a space(s) enclosed substantially by building(s) and directly open to the sky. An air well can be considered as an external space if it meets the minimum clear width and length below:

Max. Habitable Height of BuildingMin. Clear Width and Length of Air Well
60m and above14m
R Rationale - Clause table 1.4.2

The table stipulates the minimum size of an air well for effective smoke ventilation equivalent to an external space. These dimensions have been validated through fire engineering study.

1.4.3 Ambulatory care facility

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

"Ambulatory care facility” is a building, or part thereof, used for providing services on an out-patient basis for treatment for patients which would render them incapable of taking action for self-preservation or safety under emergency conditions without assistance from others, such as haemodialysis units or surgical treatment requiring general anaesthesia. Such facilities shall include the followings:

a. Renal dialysis day centres;

b. Aesthetic clinics;

c. Non-mental rehabilitation day centres; and

d. Endoscopy clinics.

1.4.4 Ancillary office

“Ancillary office” refers to any office which supports the activities of a building within Purpose Groups III, V, VI, VII and VIII and which is located within the same building or compartment as the purpose group it serves.

1.4.5 Ancillary usage


“Ancillary usage” refers to a room/ space that serves a supporting function, and which belongs to the same purpose group as the primary building. Such rooms include sick/ first aid rooms, reception lobbies/ areas, waiting areas, staff lounges/ staff recreation rooms, staff changing/ locker rooms, staff training rooms, meeting rooms, workshops, laboratories (no open-flame), store rooms, material/ product holding areas, packing distribution areas within factories/ warehouse buildings, etc.

1.4.6 Anteroom

“Anteroom” refers to the room leading into the BSL-3 or BSL-4 containment laboratory, used for showering and changing. It is also serves as a containment facility for controlling air flow and providing additional physical containment between the laboratory and adjoining spaces.

1.4.7 Approved

“Approved” refers to being approved by the SCDF.

1.4.8 Area of compartment/ room/ space


“Area of compartment/ room/ space” refers to the total area of any compartment/ room/ space bounded by the inner finished surfaces of the walls that form the compartment/ room/ space. Where there is no enclosing wall on any one side, the area of the compartment/ room/ space shall be measured by the outermost edge of the floor on that side.

1.4.9 Area of refuge


“Area of refuge” refers to an area within a building, or in an adjoining building, where evacuees can temporarily take refuge, in lieu of the requirement for adequate exit staircase provision. It shall be adequately separated from the rest of the building or adjoining building by fire-resisting construction, and connected via an external corridor or open-sided linkway. The area of refuge shall be always accessible.

1.4.10 Area of roof


“Area of roof” refers to the visible roof area on a plane parallel to the pitch of the roof.

1.4.11 Area of storey


“Area of storey” refers to the total area of that storey bounded by the inner finished surfaces of the enclosing walls. Where there is no enclosing wall on any one side, the area of storey shall be measured by the outermost edge of the floor on that side.

1.4.12 Assembly occupancy


“Assembly occupancy” refers to buildings or portions of buildings used for gathering of more than 50 persons for such purpose as deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement or awaiting transportation.

1.4.13 Atrium


“Atrium” refers to a large open space within a building created by an opening, or a series of openings, in floor assemblies, thus connecting two or more storeys. An atrium is covered at the top and is used for purposes other than those associated with small shafts, e.g., stairs, elevators and various services. The sides of the atrium can be open to all floors, to some floors or closed to all floors by non-rated or rated fire-resistant construction.

1.4.14 Authority having jurisdiction

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019

“Authority having jurisdiction” refers to non-SCDF local entities, which may include an organisation, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirement of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, an installation, or a procedure.

1.4.15 Basement storey


“Basement storey” refers to a storey of a building for which at least half the storey height is below the ground level, and which also adjoins its perimeter walls for at least half the length of such walls.

1.4.16 Biological Agent

“Biological Agent” refers to the biological agents stipulated in the First Schedule, Second Schedule and Third Schedule of the Biological Agents and Toxins Act.

1.4.17 Boundary


“Boundary” refers to the border demarcating the area surrounding a building, and where applicable (in determining the relevant boundary), it includes the imaginary extension of the border up to the centre of an abutting street, canal or river.

1.4.18 Capsule hotel

Effective Date: 1 June 2021

“Capsule hotel” refers to a type of hotel where the bed spaces are enclosed individually. Each bed space is considered as a capsule and not as a loose furniture or fitting. The capsule has the following characteristics:

a. access opening to the bed space can be fitted with doors, curtains or other materials or left open; and

b. the bed space is provided with its individual electricity supply for amenities such as lighting, power points, TV, and other amenities.

1.4.19 Cavity barrier


“Cavity barrier” refers to a fire-rated construction that seals or sub-divides a concealed space. The cavity barrier helps limit the spread of smoke and fire into or within that concealed space.

1.4.20 Ceiling


“Ceiling” refers to a part of a building that encloses and is exposed overhead in a room, circulation space or protected shaft. A soffit or rooflight is regarded as part of its surface, but not the frame of a rooflight.

1.4.21 Circulation space


“Circulation space” refers to the means of access between a room or protected shaft and an exit from the building or compartment. It does not include areas used for any commercial activity, such as information and reception counters, or areas used for exhibitions.

1.4.22 Code of Practice (CoP)


“Code of Practice” refers to the standard of practice acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The SCDF may adopt requirements stipulated in the stated year of publication of any referenced Code of Practice, or at its discretion adopt those specified in a later version.

1.4.23 Coldroom

“Coldroom” refers to a room, normally constructed of combustible insulation materials, used for the storage, processing or temporary holding of materials under cold conditions. If the floor area of cold storage space does not exceed 10m2 and its design does not permit persons to walk in, it shall be treated as an appliance and not a coldroom.

1.4.24 Compartment


“Compartment” refers to a part of a building separated from all other parts of the same building by compartment walls and/or compartment floors. The roof space above the top storey of a compartment is regarded as part of that compartment.

1.4.25 Compartment wall & Compartment floor

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019


“Compartment wall” and “Compartment floor” refer to walls or floors of fire-rated construction provided for the purpose of dividing a building into compartments.

1.4.26 Composite panel

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019

“Composite panel” refers to non-homogenous panel consisting of more than one layer of different materials used for partition, finishes to ceiling/ internal wall/ external walls/ roof covering, etc.

1.4.27 Concealed space/ Cavity


“Concealed space/ Cavity” refers to a space enclosed by elements of a building (including a suspended ceiling or raised floor) or contained within an element. It is not a room, cupboard, circulation space, protected shaft or space within a flue, chute, duct, pipe or conduit.

1.4.28 Corridor

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019


“Corridor” refers to a passage providing means of access from rooms or spaces to an exit.

1.4.29 Cross ventilated corridor/ lobby

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019

“Cross-ventilated corridor/ lobby” refers to a corridor/ lobby with fixed and unobstructed ventilation openings located on opposite facing walls, which face the external space, to allow for air circulation caused by outside breezes or wind.

1.4.30 Cubical extent

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Cubical extent” refers to the volume of a space within a building or compartment. This excludes protected lift walls, exit staircases and other accommodation (such as restrooms and locker rooms) which are enclosed with walls having at least 1-hr fire resistance, and openings protected by doors of ½-hr fire resistance fitted with an automatic self-closing device. It shall be measured according to the following dimensions:

a. the inner finished surfaces of the enclosing walls or, on any side where there is no enclosing wall, a plane extending vertically above the outermost edge of the floor on that side,


b. the upper surface of its lowest floor; and


c. where a building or compartment extends to a roof, the under-surface of the roof or the under-surface of the ceiling of the highest storey within the compartment, including the space occupied by any other wall, or any unprotected shafts, ducts or structure within the space to be so measured.


1.4.31 Custodian care facility

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Custodian-care facility” is a building or part thereof, without stay in accommodation, used by persons who, because of age, or physical or mental disabilities, are unable to care for their self-preservation and safety. Such facilities include the followings:

a. Nurseries for children under 6 years of age (e.g., kindergarten, childcare day centres, infant care day centres, etc.;

b. Senior care day centres;

c. Mentally disabled day care centres;

d. Intellectually disabled day care centres;

e. Mental rehabilitation day care centres; and

f.  Psychiatric day care centres.

1.4.32 Dead-end


“Dead-end” refers to a situation within a common area, such as a corridor or lift lobby space, where exit is only possible from one end, with no possible escape from the other end.

1.4.33 Direct distance


“Direct distance” refers to the shortest distance from the most remote point in a room or space, measured within the external enclosures of the room or space to the relevant exits, ignoring internal walls, partitions and fittings other than the enclosure walls of exit passageways and exit staircases.

1.4.34 Door

“Door” refers to any shutter, cover or other form of protection to an opening in any wall, floor or in the structure surrounding a protected shaft, regardless of whether the door is constructed of one or more leaves.

1.4.35 Electromagnetic or electromechanical door-holding device


“Electromagnetic” or “electromechanical door-holding device” refers to a device which holds doors open. This device is designed to automatically close doors in the event of a fire, thereby helping to contain the spread of smoke and fire. Events which cause these devices to trigger include the detection of smoke, failure of power supply to the door, the triggering of a fire alarm, and manual triggering.

1.4.36 Electromagnetic or electromechanical locking device

Effective Date: 1 Mar 2022


“Electromagnetic” or “electromechanical locking device” refers to a fail-safe device which provides egress access control. In the event of a fire alarm activation, failure of building power supply, and/ or any fault in the locking devices/ components, related to the release of locking mechanism, this device shall:

a. automatically unlock doors immediately to facilitate egress, and remain so until power supply is restored; and

b.    be provided with a means of manual override located within the occupied space, 1.2m above the floor and within 1.5m of the door jamb.

1.4.37 Element of structure


“Element of structure” refers to:

a. a member forming part of the structural frame of a building or any other beam or column but not a member forming part of a roof structure only,

b. a load-bearing wall or load-bearing part of a wall,

c. a floor, including a compartment floor, other than the lowest floor (in contact with the ground) of a building,

d. a separating wall, or

e. a structure enclosing a protected shaft (protecting structure).

1.4.38 Emergency generator

“Emergency generator” refers to emergency power-generating equipment that complies with the requirements stipulated in SS 535.

1.4.39 Emergency lighting

“Emergency lighting” refers to lighting provided with a secondary source of power supply to illuminate the exits and spaces within a building.

1.4.40 Engineered timber

“Engineered timber” refers to mass timber products that are manufactured according to established standards accepted by the SCDF. Examples of mass timber products are Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and Glued Laminated Timber (GLT) structural elements manufactured in accordance with EN 16351 and EN 14080, respectively.

1.4.41 Evacuee holding area

“Evacuee holding area” refers to a designated circulation area/ space on the refuge floor for temporary assembly of occupants during a fire emergency.

1.4.42 Exit

“Exit” refers to a means of egress from the interior of the building to an external space. An exit includes any of the following, either singly or in combination: a door opening leading to external space, exit staircase, exit ramp and/ or exit passageway, but not including an access stair, aisle, corridor door or corridor and an access door to a room or space.

1.4.43 Exit access


“Exit access” refers to the portion of a means of escape that leads to an exit. It includes the room and building spaces that people occupy, as well as the doors along the escape routes, lobbies, aisles, passageways, corridors, access stairs and ramps traversed in order to reach an exit.

1.4.44 Exit access door


“Exit access door” refers to a door which provides access to a room or space (excluding a toilet cubicle, bedroom, storeroom, utility room, pantry and the like), or installed across the escape path leading to an exit.

1.4.45 Exit door


“Exit door” refers to a door, including a door which opens to the external space, provided at the doorway of an exit for the passage of people, which forms part of the integrity of the exit.

1.4.46 Exit passageway


“Exit passageway” refers to the horizontal extension of a vertical exit via an exit staircase or passage leading from a habitable area to an external space.

1.4.47 Exit staircase

Effective Date: 01 Mar 2019


“Exit staircase” refers to a staircase constructed of non-combustible material and protected from fire (by fire-rated construction or located at the external space) for the purpose of enabling egress to the external space.

1.4.48 External corridor

“External corridor” refers to a corridor with an unobstructed and uninterrupted ventilation opening that measures at least 1.2m in vertical height, the latter which is located above its parapet wall.

1.4.49 External exit passageway


“External exit passageway” refers to an exit passageway that serves as required exit with at least one of its longest sides open to the external space or air well.

1.4.50 External exit staircase

Effective Date: 1 Mar 2022


“External exit staircase” refers to an exit staircase located outside a building, open to the external space, and that:

a. is enclosed by parapet walls or railing of not more than 1.1m in height;

b. has at least two adjacent sides or one of its longest sides abutting the external space; and

c. is recessed not more than 3m from the building facade.

1.4.51 External space

“External space” refers to an open space abutting the perimeter of a building, which includes an air well and which is vertically open to the sky without any roof or trellis.

1.4.52 External wall (or side of a building)


“External wall” or “external side of a building” refers to an outer wall or vertical enclosure. This includes a part of the roof pitched at an angle of 70º or more to the horizontal, if that part of the roof adjoins a space within the building to which persons have access.

1.4.53 External wall finishes

“External wall finishes” refers to materials/ components installed on the building facade for the purpose of providing thermal insulation, weather resistance and/ or to improve the appearance of buildings. They can be made of timber, metal, brick/stone granite, vinyl, composite materials, etc. It shall include cladding, fins and any decorative features mounted on the external walls of a building.

1.4.54 Fire lift lobby


“Fire lift lobby” refers to a protected and ventilated lobby into which a fire lift opens, and from which direct access to an exit staircase can be made for the purpose of firefighting.

1.4.55 Fire resistance


“Fire resistance” refers to the minimum period of time during which an element of structure or building element can be expected to function satisfactorily while subjected to a standard fire test.

1.4.56 Fire safety report

“Fire safety report” refers to a document that details the provision of fire protection systems, life safety features and fire safety management for a building, plant or installation.

1.4.57 Fire stop


“Fire stop” refers to a seal provided to close an imperfection of fit or any joint between elements, components or construction in a building, which serves to prevent/ limit the passage of smoke and flame through that imperfection or joint.

1.4.58 Flammable refrigerant

“Flammable refrigerant” refers to the group of refrigerants with flammability classification of group 2 or 3 in accordance to ISO 5149. For refrigerant blends which have more than one flammability classification, the most unfavourable classification shall be taken for the purpose of this definition. Most of these flammable refrigerants are hydrocarbon (HC) based. Some examples of HC refrigerant include propane, butane and isobutane.

1.4.59 Flexible joints and Flexible connections


For air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation systems:

a. “flexible joints” refer to connections between ducts and equipment normally provided to isolate vibration and to allow thermal movement; and

b. “flexible connections” refer to flexible sections of ducts provided to connect the extremity of ventilation ductwork to terminal units, extract units and grilles.

1.4.60 Fire engine access road

“Fire engine access road” refers to a road designed for firefighting appliances gain access to, and travel within a development for firefighting operations.

1.4.61 Fire engine accessway

“Fire engine accessway” refers to a metalled or paved road located along the perimeter of a building to allow a firefighting appliance to carry out firefighting operations. Compared to a fire engine access road, a fire engine accessway is designed to withstand a higher tonnage, and with a larger width, for the purpose of deploying firefighting appliances during an operation.

1.4.62 Fully Automated Mechanised Car Park (FAMCP)

“Fully automated mechanised car park” refers to a building or part of a building that is intended for the storage/ parking of passenger vehicles employing fully automated mechanical facilities to move the vehicle from the point of entry to the parking deck and vice-visa. The parking area would be accessible by trained staff when carrying out maintenance works only. The automatic parking system is to be deactivated during the maintenance operations.

1.4.63 General warehouse

“General warehouse” refers to a building or space used for storing various types of goods or materials. It includes warehouses for storing chemicals, fresh/ perishable food products (coldroom), etc. Store having floor area more than 100m2 shall be classified as warehouse.

1.4.64 Habitable floor

Effective Date: 1 Mar 2022


“Habitable floor” refers to all floors in a building, including the roof level. The roof level can be taken as non-habitable if it is not used for any purpose/ activity other than housing M&E plants/ equipment, e.g. lift motors, fire pumps, generators, fire hose reel pumps, water supply pumps, water tanks, cooling towers, solar photovoltaic panels, supply/ exhaust fans with associated ductwork, air-con condensing units, telecommunication equipment, satellite dishes, public warning sirens, green roofs inaccessible to public and for maintenance access only, etc.

1.4.65 Habitable height

Effective Date: 15 Sep 2020


“Habitable height” refers to the height measured from the level of fire engine accessways or fire engine access roads, whichever is the lowest,  to the finished floor level of the highest habitable floor.

1.4.66 Height of building


“Height of building” refers to the vertical distance measured from the average level of the ground adjoining the outside of the external walls of the building to the level of half the vertical height of the roof of the building or part, or the top of the walls or of the parapet (if any), whichever is higher.

1.4.67 High containment facility

“High containment facility” refers to containment laboratory, including the interstitial space, waste treatment area, anteroom, etc.) of Bio-safety Level 3 [BSL-3] and maximum containment laboratory of Bio-safety Level 4 [BSL-4] as defined in the WHO Laboratory Bio-Safety Manual. They are designed to comply with the requirements of WHO and authorities having jurisdiction for storing or handling of biological agents.

1.4.68 High hazard occupancy

“High hazard occupancy” refers to any occupancy in which the contents or activities include one or more of the following:

a. materials with auto-ignition temperature lower than 200ºC, or

b. materials that produce poisonous, noxious fumes, or flammable vapour, or

c. materials that cause explosions, or

d. high hazard occupancies stipulated under SS CP 52, or

e. highly combustible substances and/ or flammable liquids.

1.4.69 Hospital

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Hospital” is a building used for medical and surgical care and shall include healthcare facilities with 24-hr or inpatient services, such buildings include the following:

a. General hospitals;

b. Psychiatric hospitals (Institute of Mental Health)

c. Children/ Women hospitals; and

d. Community hospitals.

1.4.70 Load-bearing wall

“Load-bearing wall” refers to a wall which supports any load in addition to its own weight.

1.4.71 Masonry

“Masonry” refers to brick or concrete construction.

1.4.72 Mechanical ventilation

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Mechanical ventilation” refers to any system that uses mechanical means such as ventilation fan, to introduce outdoor air to a space when natural ventilation mode cannot be achieved during normal and   fire emergency situations. This includes supply ventilation, exhaust ventilation, pressurisation, smoke purging, mechanical engineered smoke control systems, balanced systems that consist of both supply and exhaust ventilations, etc.

1.4.73 Non-combustible material


“Non-combustible material” refers to any material which neither burns nor gives off flammable vapour in sufficient quantity to ignite when subjected to the test for combustibility prescribed in BS 476 Part 4, and includes materials of limited combustibility, such as:

a. any material of density 300kg/m3 or more, which when tested in accordance with BS 476: Part 11, does not flame, and the rise in temperature on the furnace thermocouple is not more than 20°C;

b. any material with a non-combustible core at least 8mm thick having combustible facings (on one or both sides) not more than 0.5mm thick; and

c. any material of density less than 300kg/m3, which when tested in accordance with BS 476: Part 11,

(1) does not flame for more than 10 sec;

(2) the rise in temperature on the centre (specimen) thermocouple is not more than 35°C; and

(3) the rise in temperature on the furnace thermocouple is not more than 25°C.

1.4.74 Non-load-bearing wall

“Non-load-bearing wall” refers to a wall which supports no load other than its own weight.

1.4.75 Notional boundary


“Notional boundary” refers to an imaginary boundary which exists at equal distance between buildings on the same site, or the centre of the width of a public road/ drain/ sewer reserve, provided that the boundary is fronting the respective reserves.

1.4.76 Nursing care facility

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

"Nursing care facility" refers to a building, or part thereof, used for the housing and nursing care of persons on a 24-hr basis who, because of physical incapacity, may be unable to care for their own needs and safety without assistance of other persons. These facilities provide inpatient medical care and include the followings:

a. Nursing homes;

b. Convalescent homes; and

c. Hospice.

1.4.77 Occupant load

Effective Date: 25 Aug 2023


“Occupant load” of a building, or part thereof, refers to the total number of persons that can occupy such a building, or part thereof, at any one time. The “occupant load” shall be determined by:

a. multiplying the floor area(s) available for occupation with the appropriate areas per person as stated in Table 1.4B, unless prior approval is obtained from SCDF for any other occupancy load factors not stated in this table, or 

b. the number of fixed seating, if applicable, for assembly occupancies.

1.4.78 One-way travel

“One-way travel” refers to a situation where occupants within a space can only travel in a single route/ direction, from the most remote point, to an exit or a splitting point to reach multiple exits.

1.4.79 Outdoor Display Area (ODA)

“Outdoor display area” refers to an area along the common walkways in front of their shops where the shop owner/ operator displays his merchandises. The area can be open- to-sky, covered or roofed-over with extended awning/ canopy.

1.4.80 Outdoor Refreshment Area (ORA)

“Outdoor refreshment area” refers to an area along the common walkways in front of their eating houses, restaurants, coffee shops, hawker centres, fast food outlets, cafeterias, canteens, pubs, bars and the like by their respective food & beverage outlet’s owner/ operator. The area can be open-to-sky, covered or roofed-over with umbrella or extended awning/ canopy.

1.4.81 Permitted limit of unprotected area


“Permitted limit of unprotected area” refers to the maximum aggregate area of unprotected areas in any side or external wall of a building or compartment.

1.4.82 Plastic

“Plastic” refers to any group of organic materials which, though stable in use at ambient temperatures, are plastic at some stage in their manufacture and then can be shaped by the application of heat and/ or pressure. Plastics can be categorised as either thermoplastics or thermosetting plastics.


1.4.83 Pressurisation

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Pressurisation” refers to a mechanical ventilation system that introduce positive differential pressure to a space/ room to prevent smoke ingress during a fire emergency.

1.4.84 Private lift


“Private lift” refers to a passenger lift which is meant for the exclusive use of occupants in the building, and is located to open its door directly into private enclosed spaces. Vehicle lifts, home lifts and stair lifts are not considered private lifts.

1.4.85 Protected shaft


“Protected shaft” refers to an exit staircase, exit passageway, lift, chute, duct or other shaft which enables persons, things or air to pass from one compartment to another.

1.4.86 Protecting structure


“Protecting structure” refers to a wall, floor or other part of the building which encloses a protected shaft. The following are not considered protecting structure:

a. a wall which also forms part of an external wall, separating wall or compartment wall, or

b. a floor which is also a compartment floor or a floor laid directly on the ground, or

c. a roof.

1.4.87 Purpose Group (PG)


“Purpose Group” refers to the categorisation of buildings in this Code, with the aim of specifying relevant fire safety criteria for that building type. Where a building is divided into compartments used for different purposes, the purpose group of each compartment shall be determined individually, provided that where the whole or part of a building or compartment is used for more than one purpose, only the main purpose of that building or compartment shall be taken into account in determining into which purpose group it falls. See Table 1.4A.

1.4.88 Refuge floor

“Refuge floor” refers to a floor adequately separated from the rest of the building by fire-resisting construction. It serves as an area where evacuees can temporarily take refuge for buildings with long vertical evacuation routes to the building’s external space.

1.4.89 Relevant boundary


“Relevant boundary” refers to the lot boundary in relation to a building’s external wall or compartment. For the purpose of unprotected openings setback calculation, it may also be the notional boundary.

1.4.90 Remoteness of exits


“Remoteness of exits” refers to exits which are remotely located from each other, arranged and constructed to minimise the possibility that more than one would be rendered unusable during a fire, or other emergency conditions.

1.4.91 Roof light


“Roof light” refers to any elements in a roof intended to admit daylight.

1.4.92 Room


“Room” refers to an enclosed space bounded by walls that is not an enclosed circulation space or protected shaft at most 750mm in depth.

1.4.93 Separated part (of a building)


“Separated part” refers to a form of compartmentation from another part of the same building by a compartment wall which runs full height of the part and is in one continuous plane.

1.4.94 Separating wall


“Separating wall” refers to a wall used to divide or portion adjoining buildings under different ownership.

1.4.95 Setback distance

“Setback distance” refers to the distance between a building and its relevant boundary, which is meant for the purpose of preventing fire spread between buildings/ properties.

1.4.96 Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF)

“Singapore Civil Defence Force” refers to the Commissioner of Singapore Civil Defence Force and includes officers authorised by him generally or specifically to exercise the powers, functions and duties conferred by the Fire Safety Act.

1.4.97 Single point emergency lighting

“Single point emergency lighting” refers to an emergency lighting system employing self-contained emergency luminaires

1.4.98 Smoke-check door


“Smoke-check door” refers to a door or set of doors placed in an internal corridor to restrict the spread of smoke by reducing draft.

1.4.99 Smoke-free lobby


“Smoke-free lobby” refers to a lobby located at the entrance of an exit staircase. It is designed to help prevent or minimise the entry of smoke into the staircase.

1.4.100 Storey

“Storey” refers to any floor or part thereof, including platforms, mezzanines, attic levels and M&E floors.

1.4.101 Super high-rise residential building

“Super high-rise residential building” refers to a residential building with more than 40 storeys/ levels.

1.4.102 Supervisory care facility

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020

“Supervisory care facility” refers to a building or part thereof, used for the housing, on a 24-hr basis, of mental health patients, natal cares, aged and individuals under welfare cares, who may be capable of self-preservation but require supervision and are receiving therapy, training or other health-related care and for whom there may be security measures not under their control. Such facilities shall include the followings:

a. Homes for intellectually disabled;

b. Psychiatric rehabilitation homes;

c. Dementia homes;

d. Pre/ post natal care centres; and

e. Welfare homes.

1.4.103 Tenancy unit


“Tenancy unit” refers to an individual unit or subdivided unit within a building or a compartment, and which is managed by a different operator registered with the authority having jurisdiction.

1.4.104 Thermoplastics

“Thermoplastic” refers to a class of plastic materials that is capable of being repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling. A material can be considered as thermoplastic if it is a synthetic polymeric material which has a softening point below 200°C when tested to BS EN ISO 306 Method A120 Plastics – Thermoplastic materials – Determination of Vicat softening temperature.

1.4.105 Thermosetting plastic

“Thermosetting plastic” refers to a class of plastic materials that will undergo a chemical reaction by the application of heat, pressure, catalysts, etc., leading to a relatively infusible, non-reversible state.

1.4.106 Toxin

“Toxin” refers to the toxins stipulated in the Fifth Schedule of the Biological Agents and Toxins Act.

1.4.107 Travel distance


“Travel distance” refers to the distance required to be traversed from the most remote point in any room or space to the edge of a door opening, directly to:

a. an exit staircase, or

b. an exit passageway, or

c. an open external space,

unless otherwise permitted under this Code as in the case of residential apartments, maisonettes and exits to areas of refuge.

1.4.108 Two-way travel

“Two-way travel” refers to a situation where occupants within a space have the choice of more than one route/direction from a splitting point to reach multiple exits.

1.4.109 Unmanned building

An “unmanned building” refers to a building which is not manned by operation or security personnel after office or operating hours.

1.4.110 Unprotected area


“Unprotected area”, in relation to a side or external wall of a building, refers to:

a. a window, door or other opening;

b. any part of the external wall which has less than the relevant fire resistance; and

c. any part of the external wall which has combustible material more than 1mm thick attached or applied to its external face, whether for finishes or any other purpose.

1.4.111 Ventilation openings 

Effective Date: 1 Sep 2022

“Ventilation openings” refer to fixed natural ventilation openings located in external walls for any space, which shall be unobstructed at all times, and exclude windows or louvres that are openable or operable.  The fixed louvres shall consist of a single bank of louvres with blade width not exceeding 150mm, with effective ventilation openings calculated based on the free area calculation stated below:

Ventilation example 1-4-115

1.4.112 Vertical exit

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020


“Vertical exit” refers to an exit staircase or exit ramp which serves as a required exit from one or more storeys above or below ground level.

1.4.113 Wall surface

Effective Date: 2 Mar 2020


“Wall surface”, in the context of internal surfaces, refers to the surface of glazing, and any part of the ceiling sloping at an angle of 70º or more to the horizontal. It does not include:

a. door frames and unglazed parts of doors, or

b. window frames and frames in which glazing is fitted, or

c. architraves, cover moulds, picture rails, skirtings and similar narrow members, or

d. fitted furniture.

1.4.114 Workers’ dormitories

Effective Date: 25 Aug 2023


“Workers’ dormitories” refers to buildings or spaces in buildings where group sleeping accommodation is provided for workers.

Related Diagrams & Tables

Name Description Remarks
SS CP 5 CoP for Wiring of Electrical Equipment of Buildings Replaced by SS 638
SS CP 10 CoP for the Installation and Servicing of Electrical Fire Alarm System Replaced by SS 645

SS CP 52

CoP for Automatic Fire Sprinkler System


SS 99

Specifications for Welded Low Carbon Steel Cylinders for Storage and Transportation of Low-Pressure Liquefiable Gases  
SS141 Specification for Unplasticised PVC pipe for Cold Water Services and Industrial Uses  
SS 213 Unplasticised PVC Pipes and Fittings for Soil, Waste and Vent Application  

SS 232         Pt 1 to 6

Portable Fire Extinguishers Replaced by SS EN 3 - 7 to 10

SS 233

Specifications for Flexible Rubber Tubing, Rubber Hose and Rubber Hose Assemblies for Use in LPG Vapour Phase Installations  

SS 254

Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Replaced by IEC 60079

SS 263         Pt 2

Luminaires -

Particular Requirements for Luminaires for Emergency Lighting

Replaced by IEC 60598-2-22

SS 281

Specifications for Pressure Regulators for LPG  

SS 286

Caution Labelling for Hazardous Substances Replaced by SS 586

SS 294

Specifications for Valves for Use with Domestic and Industrial LPG Cylinders  

SS 299

Fire Resistant Cables  

SS 332

Specification for Fire Door  

SS 333

Specification for Fire Dampers  

SS 489

Specification for Fire Shutters  

SS 508

Graphical Symbols - Safety Colours & Safety Signs Formerly SS 217 & SS 364
   Pt 1

Design Principles for Safety Signs & Safety Markings

   Pt 2

Design Principles for Product Safety Labels

SS 512 CoP for the design, construction and operation of pipeline service corridors  

SS 532

CoP for the Storage of Flammable Liquids

Formerly CP 40


SS 535

CoP for Installation, Operation, Maintenance, Performance astructional Requirements of Mains Failure Standby Generating Systems Formerly CP 31

SS 546

CoP for Emergency Voice Communication Systems in Buildings Formerly CP 25

SS 550

CoP for Installation, Operation and Maintenance of El Passenger and Goods Lifts Formerly CP 2

SS 551

CoP for Earthing

Formerly CP 16


SS 563

CoP for the Design, Installation & Maintenance of Em Lighting and Power Supply Systems in Building Formerly CP 19

   Pt. 1

Emergency lighting


   Pt. 2

Installation Requirements and Maintenance Procedures


SS 572

CoP for the Use of Timber in Buildings

Formerly CP 1

SS 575

CoP for Fire Hydrant, Rising Mains and Hose Reel System

Formerly CP 29

SS 578

CoP for the Use and Maintenance of Portable Fire Extinguishers

Formerly CP 55

SS 586

Specification for Hazard Communication for Hazardous Chemicals and Dangerous Goods Replaces SS 286

SS 608

CoP for Gas Installation Formerly CP 51
SS 634 CoP for Fire Safety for Open Plant Processing Facilities in Oil, Chemical and Process Industries  
SS 638 CoP for Electrical Installations Formerly CP 5
SS 641 CoP for Fire Safety for Laboratories Using Chemicals  
SS 645 CoP for the Installation and Servicing of Electrical Fire Alarm Systems Formerly CP 10
TR 77 Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Systems  
Pt 1 Planning and Performance Assessment of Electrical Energy Storage Systems – General Specification  
Pt 2 Safety Considerations for Grid-integrated EES Systems – General Specification  

SS EN 3-7

Portable Fire Extinguishers -

Part 7 : Characteristics, performance requirements and test methods

Replaces SS 232 Pt. 1 to 6

SS EN 3-8

Portable Fire Extinguishers -

Part 8 : Additional requirements to SS EN 3-7 for the construction, resistance to pressure and mechanical tests for extinguishers with a maximum allowable pressure equal to or lower than 30 bar

Replaces SS 232 Pt. 1 to 6

SS EN 3-9

Portable Fire Extinguishers -

Part 9 : Additional requirements to SS EN 3-7 for pressure resistance if CO extinguishers

SS EN 3-10

Portable Fire Extinguishers -

Part 10 : Provisions for evaluating the conformity of a portable fire extinguisher to SS EN 3-7

ANSI American National Standard Institute  
     A14.3 American National Standards for Ladders - Fixed - Safety Requirements  


Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/ or Extent & Time of Burning of Plastics in a Horizontal Position  


Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings  
ASTM E119 Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction & Materials  
ASTM E 662  Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials  
ASTM E814 Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Penetration Firestop Systems  
ASTM E2307 Standard Test Method for Determining Fire Resistance of Perimeter Fire Barriers Using Intermediate – Scale, Multi-story Test Apparatus  
NFPA 16 Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems

Formerly NFPA 16A


Flammable & Combustible Liquids Code

NFPA 33 Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials  
NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals  
NFPA 54 National Fuel Gas Code  
NFPA 55 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code  
NFPA 58 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code  
NFPA 251 Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Resistance of Building Construction & Materials  
NFPA 253 Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant heat Energy Source  
NFPA 258 Recommended Practice for Determining Smoke Generation of Solid Material  
NFPA 262 Standard Methods of Tests for Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces  
NFPA 285 Standard Fire Test Method for Evaluation of Fire Propagation Characteristics of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components  
NFPA 400 Hazardous Materials Code  
NFPA 430 Code for the Storage of Liquids & Solid Oxidizers

Replaced by NFPA 400

NFPA 432 Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations
NFPA 495 Explosive Materials Code  
NFPA 502 Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and other Limited Access Highways  
NFPA 750 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems  
NFPA 2001 Standard on Clean Agent Fire  Protection Systems  

UL 132

Standard for Safety Relief Valves for Anhydrous Ammonia and LP-Gas


UL 144

Standard for LP-Gas Regulators  
UL 217 Standard for Smoke Alarms  
UL 300 Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Commercial Cooking Equipment  
UL 448 Standard for Safety Centrifugal Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection Service  
UL 555 Fire Dampers  
UL 924 Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment  
AS 1530

Methods for Fire Tests on Building Materials, Components & Structures


     Pt 4

Fire-resistance Test of Elements of Construction

AS 2208

Safety Glazing Materials in Buildings

AS/NZS 2293 Emergency Lighting and Exit Signs for Buildings  
Pt 1 System Design, Installation and Operation  
AS 2714

The Storage & Handling of Organic Peroxides

AS 2941

Fixed Fire Protection Installations - Pumpset Systems

AS 3786 Smoke Alarms Using Scattered Light, Transmitted Light or Ionization  
AS 4391

Smoke Management Systems - Hot Smoke Test

AS 4326

The Storage & Handling of Oxidizng Agents

AS 4587

Water Mist Fire Protection Systems - System Design, Installation and Commissioning

BR 186

Design Principles for Smoke Ventilation in Enclosed Shopping Centres

Published by Fire Research Station, Building Research Establishment, Borehamwood, Herts WD62BL
BR 258

Design Approaches for Smoke Control in Atrium Buildings

BR 368

Design Methodologies for Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation

Published by Con- struction Research Communications Ltd by permission of Building Re- search Establishment Ltd
BS 476

Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures

  Pt 3 Classification and Method of Test for External Fire Exposure to Roofs   
  Pt 4


Non-Combustibility Test for Materials

  Pt 5

Method of Test for Ignitability

  Pt 6

Method of Test for Fire Propagation for Products

  Pt 7

Method of Test to Determine the Classification of the Surface Spread of Flame of Products

  Pt 11

Method for Assessing the Heat Emission from Building Materials

  Pt 20

Method for Determination of the Fire Resistance of Elements of Construction (General Principles)

  Pt 21

Methods for Determination of the Fire Resistance of Load- Bearing Elements of Construction

 Pt 22

Method for Determination of the Fire Resistance of Non-Load- Bearing Elements of Construction

  Pt 23

Methods for Determination of the Contribution of Components to the Fire Resistance of a Structure

  Pt 24

Method for Determination of the Fire Resistance of Ventilation Ducts

BS 1230       Pt 1

Specification for Plasterboard Excluding Materials Submitted to Secondary Operations

Replaced by BS EN 520
BS 2594

Specification for Carbon Steel Welded Horizontal Cylindrical Storage Tanks

BS 3016

Specifications for Pressure Regulators for LPG

Replaced by BS EN 16219
BS 4514

Specification for Unplasticized PVC Soil and Ventilating Pipes of 82.4mm Minimum Mean Outside Diameter, and Fittings and Accessories of 82.4mm and of Other Sizes

BS 5041

Fire Hydrant Systems Equipment

  Pt 1

Specification for Landing Valves for Wet Risers

  Pt 3

Specification for Inlet Breechings for Dry Riser Inlets

BS 5234

Partitions (including matching linings)

  Pt 2

Specification for Performance Requirements for Strength and Robustness including Methods of Test

BS 5345

Selection, Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmosphere (Other than Mining Applications or Explosive Processing and Manufacturing)

Replaced by BS EN 60079-14
   Pt 1

General Recommendations

   Pt 3

Installation and Maintenance Requirements for Electrical Apparatus with Type of Protection ‘d’. Flameproof Enclosure

BS 5499

Fire Safety Signs, Notices and Graphic Symbols

   Pt 2

Specification for Self-Luminous Fire Safety Signs

BS 5588

Fire Precautions in the Design, Construction and Use of Buildings

   Pt 5

CoP for Firefighting Stairways and Lifts

BS 5852

Methods of Test for Assessment of the Ignitability of Upholstered Seating by Smouldering and Flaming Ignition Source

BS 6206

Specification for Impact Performance Requirements for Flat Safety Glass and Safety Plastics for Use in Buildings

Replaced by EN 12600
BS 6387 Test Method for Resistance to Fire of Cables Required to Maintain Circuit Integrity under Fire Conditions  
BS 6391

Specification for Non-Percolating Layflat Delivery Hoses and Hose Assemblies for Fire Fighting Purposes

BS 7346

Components for Smoke and Heat Control Systems

  Pt 2

Specification for Powered Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilators

  Pt 3

Specification for Smoke Curtains

BS 7346

Components for Smoke and Heat Control Systems

  Pt 7

CoP on Functional Recommendations and Calculation Methods for Smoke and Heat Control Systems for Covered Car Parks

BS 7846 Electric Cables. Thermosetting Insulated, Armoured, Fire-resistant Cables of Rated Voltage 600/1000V for Fixed Installations, Having Low Emission of Smoke and Corrosive Gases when Affected by Fire. Specification  
BS 8202

Coatings for Fire Protection of Building Elements

  Pt 2

CoP for the Use of Intumescent Coating Systems to Metallic Substrates for Providing Fire Resistance

EN 54

Fire Detection and Alarm Systems

  Pt 2

Control and Indicating Equipment

  Pt 4

Power Supply Equipment

BS EN 520

Gypsum Plasterboards. Definitions, Requirements and Test Methods

Replaces BS 1230 Pt 1
BS EN 12101-1

Smoke & Heat Control Systems – Specification for Smoke Barriers

Replaces BS 7346 Pt 3

BS EN 12101-3

Smoke & Heat Control Systems – Specification for Powered Smoke & Heat Control Ventilators (Fans)

Replaces BS 7346 Pt 2

BS EN 13501-1

Fire Test to Building Materials - Classification

BS EN 50054

Electrical Apparatus for the Detection and Measurement of Combustible Gases. - General Requirements and Test Methods

BS EN 50057

Electrical Apparatus for the Detection and Measurement of Combustible Gases. - Performance Requirements for Group II Apparatus Indicating up to 100% Lower Explosive Limit

BS EN 50272-2

Safety Requirements for Secondary Batteries and Battery Installations. Stationary Batteries


BS EN 50272-3

Safety Requirements for Secondary Batteries and Battery Installations. - Traction Batteries


BS EN 60079-14

Explosive Atmosphere. Electrical Installations Design, Selection and Erection

Replaces BS 5345 Pt 1 & 3

BS EN IEC 62485-2

Safety Requirements for Secondary Batteries and Battery Installations - Stationary Batteries

Replaces BS EN 50272-2

BS EN IEC 62485-3

Safety Requirements for Secondary Batteries and Battery Installations - Traction Batteries

Replaces BS EN 50272-3

EN 3 Portable Fire Extinguishers  
Pt 8 Additional Requirements to EN 3 – 7 for the Construction, Resistance to Pressure and Mechanical Tests for extinguishers with a Maximum Allowable Pressure Equal to or Lower than 30 Bar   
Pt 9 Additional Requirements to EN 3 – 7 for Pressure Resistance of C02 Extinguishers   
EN 54 - 2 Fire Detection and Alarm Systems - Control and Indicating Equipment  
EN 54 - 4 Fire Detection and Alarm Systems - Power Supply Equipment  
EN 81 - 58

Safety Rules for the Construction and Installation of Lifts. Examination and Tests. Part 58 - Landing Doors Fire Resistance Test

EN 179 Building Hardware – Emergency Exit Devices Operated by a Lever Handle or Push Pad  
EN 520 Gypsum Plasterboards – Definitions, Requirements and Test Methods  

EN 671 - 1

Fixed Firefighting Systems. Hose Systems. Hose Reels with Semi-Rigid Hose

EN 1125 Building Hardware – Panic Exit Devices Operated by a Horizontal Bar  
EN 1154 Building Hardware – Controlled Door Closing Devices  
EN 1155 Electrically Powered Hold Open Devices for Swing Doors  
EN 1158 Building Hardware – Door Coordinator Devices – Requirements and Test Standards  
EN 1303 Building Hardware – Cylinders for Locks  
EN 1363 Fire Resistance Tests. General Requirements  
EN 1364 Fire Resistance Test for Non-loadbearing Elements  
Pt 1 Walls  
EN 1365 Fire Resistance Test for Loadbearing Elements. Floors and Roofs  
EN 1366 Fire Resistance Test for Service Installations   
Pt 1 Ventilation Ducts  
Pt 3 Penetration Seals  
Pt 4 Linear Joint Seals  
Pt 8 Smoke Extraction Ducts  
Pt 9 Single Compartment Smoke Extraction Ducts  
EN 1634-1 Fire Resistance and Smoke Control Tests for Door and Shutter Assemblies, Openable Windows and Elements of Building Hardware   
Pt 1 Fire Resistance Test for Door and Shutter Assemblies and Openable Window  
EN 1751 Ventilation for Buildings – Air Terminal Devices – Aerodynamic Testing of Damper and Valves  
EN 1906 Building Hardware. Lever Handles and Knob Furniture. Requirements and Test Method  
EN 1935 Building Hardware. Single-axis Hinges. Requirements and Test Methods  
EN 12051 Building Hardware. Door and Window Bolts. Requirements and Test Methods  
EN 12101 Smoke and Heat Control Systems  
Pt 1 Specification for Smoke Barriers   
EN 12209 Building Hardware. Mechanically Operated Locks and Locking plates. Requirements and Test Methods  
EN 12600 Glass in Building. Pendulum Test. Impact Test Method and Classification for Flat Glass  
EN 13501
Fire Classification of Construction Products and Building Elements  
Pt 5 Classification Using Data from External Fire Exposure to Roofs Tests   
EN 13823

Reaction to Fire Tests for Building Products - Building Products excluding Floorings exposed to the Thermal Attack by a Single Burning Item

EN 14041 Resilient, Textile and Laminate Floor Coverings. Essential Characteristics  
EN 14064 - 1 Thermal Insulation Products for Buildings. IN-situ Formed Loose-fill Mineral Wool (MW) Products. Specifications for the Loose-fill Products Before Insulation   
EN 14064 Smoke Alarm Devices  
EN 14846 Building Hardware. Locks and Latches. Electromechanically Operated Locks and Striking Plates. Requirements and Test Methods  
EN 15684 Building Hardware – Mechatronic Cylinders – Requirements and Test Methods  
EN 16623 Paints and Varnishes. Reactive Coatings for Fire Protection of Metallic Substrates. Definitions, Requirements, Characteristics and Marking  
EN 45545 Railway Applications – Fire protection on Railway Vehicles    
Pt 2 Requirements for Fire Behaviour of Materials and Components  
EN ISO 1182

Reaction to Fire Tests for Products - Non-Combustibility Test

EN ISO 1716

Reaction to Fire Tests for Building Products - Determination of the Gross Heat of Combustion (Calorific Value)

EN ISO 5659 Plastics - Smoke Generation   
Pt 2 Determination of Optical Density by a Single-chamber Test  
EN ISO 11925 -2

Reaction to Fire Tests - Ignitability of Products subjected to Direct Impingement of Flame - Part 2: Single Flame Source Test

IEC 60079 Explosive Atmospheres  
IEC 60598-2-22 Luminaries – Part 2-22: Particular Requirements - Luminaries for Emergency Lighting  
 IEC 61730 Photovoltaic (PV) Module for Safety Qualification  
Pt 2 Requirements for Testing  
ISO 834

Fire resistance Tests - Elements of Building Construction

Pt 1 General Requirements  
Pt 5 Specific Requirements for Loadbearing Horizontal Separating Elements  
Pt 7 Specific Requirements for Columns  
Pt 8 Specific Requirements for Non-loadbearing Vertical Separating Elements  
Pt 9 Specific Requirements for Non-loadbearing Ceiling Elements  
ISO 1896 Thermal Insulating Asbestos Boards  
ISO 3864 Graphical Symbols – Safety Colours and Safety Signs   
Pt 1 Design Principles for Safety Signs and Safety Markings  
Pt 2 Design Principles for Product Safety Labels  
Pt 3 Design Principles for Graphical Symbols for Use in Safety Signs  
ISO 5149

Refrigerating Systems and Heat Pumps - Safety and Environment Requirements

ISO 5167 Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Differential Pressure Devices  
ISO 7010 Graphical Symbols – Safety Colours and Safety Signs – Registered Safety Signs  
ISO 7244 Air Distribution and Air Diffusion – Aerodynamic Testing of Dampers and Valves  
ISO 30061 Emergency Lighting   
FM 1311 Centrifugal Fire Pumps Spilt-close Type (Axial or Radial)  
FM 1319 Centrifugal Fire Pumps (Horizontal, END Suction Type)  
Note: SCDF shall not be held responsible for the accuracy of the standard titles shown in Table 1.2A.
Abbreviation Definition
ACMV Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation
AFA Accessible Floor Area
AHJAuthority Having Jurisdiction
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AS Australian Standard
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air-conditioning Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BRE Building Research Establishment
BSBritish Standard
BSL Bio-Safety Level
CDCivil Defence
CoC Certificate of Conformity
CoP Code of Practice
Cl. Clause
CERT Company Emergency Response Team
DIN German Institute for Standardization
DoC Declaration of Compliance
EC Exit Capacity
EN European Standard
FAMCP Fully Automated Mechanised Car Park
FCC Fire Command Centre
FM Factory Mutual
FMRC Factory Mutual Research Corporation
FSC Fire Safety Certificate
FSEFire Safety Engineer
HFAD Home Fire Alarm Device
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas
MAQ Maximum Allowable Quantity
MCST Management Corporation Strata Title
MRA Mutual Recognition Arrangement
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MV Mechanical Ventilation
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NoA Notice of Approval
NZS New Zealand Standard
ODAOutdoor Display Area
OL Occupant Load
ORA Outdoor Refreshment Area
PEProfessional Engineer
PG Purpose Group
PLS Product Listing Scheme
Pt Part
PWDs Persons With Disabilities
QPQualified Person
RI Registered Inspector
SAC Singapore Accreditation Council
SCDF Singapore Civil Defence Force
SS Singapore Standard
SS EN Singapore Standard implementation of a European Standard
TFP Temporary Fire Permit
UL Underwriters Laboratories
VIFDsVideo Image Fire Detection System
WHO World Health Organisation
Purpose Group (PG) Descriptive Title Purpose for which building or part of the building is used or intended to be used
I Small residential Residential dwelling house, such as:

• bungalow

• detached house

• semi-detached house

• terrace house


Other residential

Accommodation for residential purposes other than any premises comprised in PG I, such as:

• apartment

• cluster housing

• condominium

• flat

• maisonette

• town house

III Institutional Establishments used for treatment, care or maintenance of persons suffering from disabilities, such as:

• community hospital

• convalescent home

• home for intellectually disabled

• home for the aged

• home for the spastic

• hospice

• hospital

• psychiatric hospital

• nursing home

Establishments used for care or maintenance of young/ dependent persons, such as:

• children's home

• correction centre

• daycare centre

• detention centre

• dialysis centre

• infant-care centre

• rehabilitation centre

• school for the spastic

• senior activity centre

• orphanage

Establishments used for educational/ training purposes, such as:

• college

• commerical/ private • school

• enrichment centre

• kindergarten/nursery

• military camp

• polytechnic

• public school

• tuition centre

• university

• vocational institution

Establishments used for worker lodging purposes, such as:

• workers' dormitory


IV Office Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for the purposes of administration and clerical work, or as premises occupied with an office for the purposes of the activities therein carried on, such as:

• banking

• insurance

• publisher

• stock broker

• telephone/ telegraph operating

V Shop Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for the following purposes (and/or any other similar trades or businesses):

• beauty salon

• book store

• boutique

• confectionary outlet

• departmental store

• drugstore

• gift shop

• hairdressing salon

• jewellery shop

• laundry

• outpatient clinic

• pawnshop

• pet shop/ clinic

• polyclinic

• provisional shop

• shopping arcade

• shopping centre

• show flat

• showrooms for sale of goods

• supermarket

• take-away F&B • outlet/ kiosk

• ticketing agency

• travel agency

VI Factory Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors with manufacturing, processing, servicing or testing activities, such as:

• aircraft hangar

• chemicals

• consumable products

• data/ server centre

• electrical switching/ transmitting

• fireworks

• food products

• glassware

• highly combustible substances

• highly flammable products

• incineration

• metalwork

• oil refinery

• pharmaceutical

• power generation

• recycling

• rubber

• ship building

• telecommunication exchange

• vehicle repair/ servicing

• wafer

• waste treatment/ pumping

• woodwork

VII Place of public resort Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for accommodation purpose, such as:

• backpacker hotel

• boarding house

• hotel

• staff quarters

• holiday resort

• serviced apartment

• student hostel

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for educational purpose, such as:

• auditorium

• convention centre

• exhibition centre

• museum

• public art gallery

• public library

Premises used for social purpose such as:

• community centre

• private club

VII Place of public resort Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for entertainment purpose, such as:

• casino

• cinema

• concert hall

• discotheque

• internet gaming centre

• karaoke lounge

• night club

• theatre

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for religious purpose, such as:

• church

• mosque

• temple

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for body treatment purpose, such as:

• body massage

• foot reflexology

• gymnasium

• Spa

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for recreational purpose, such as:

• amusement centre

• billiard/ snooker centre

• bowling centre

• roof garden/ terrace

• sky garden/ terrace

• public sport complex

• public swimming complex

• stadium

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for F&B purpose, such as:

• cafeteria

• canteen

• coffee shop

• eating house

• fast food outlet

• food court

• hawker centre

• Pub/ bar

• restaurant

Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for transportation purpose, such as:

• airport terminal

• bus terminal

• ferry terminal

• train station

VIII Storage Premises/ areas/ spaces/ floors used for the purposes of storing, depositing or parking of goods, materials and/or vehicles, such as:

• coldroom

• godown

• store

• vehicle park

• warehouse

Note: Requirements for buildings not listed in this Table, including but not limited to buildings used for the manufacture and/ or storage of highly combustible substances and/ or flammable liquids, etc., shall be consulted with the SCDF.


Amusement park1excluding machine areas
Apartment, residential 15 
Area of refuge
  ambulatory care facility1.4  
  custodian care facility1.4 
  hospital0.56for area of refuge without patient accommodation
  nursing care facility2.8 
  nursing care facility0.56for area of refuge without patient accommodation
  supervisory care facility0.56 
Archive room
    reading area5  
    stack area10 
Atrium floor3 
Audio visual area3 
Auditorium/ theatre
   With individual fixed seating1.5occupant load can be based on number of fixed seating
   With fixed bench seating---occupant load based on 450mm of length of the benches per person
Audio visual control room for theatres/ cinemas/ concert halls5 
Backpacker hotel3Max. 20 persons per room (including living area, toilet, etc.)
Ball room1.5 
Banking hall3 
Bar/ pub1 
Bath room---non-simultaneous
Billiards room 5 
Book/ general storage 30 
Bowling alley 1excluding bowling lanes
Business centre/ office 10 
Canteen1.5including staff canteen
Car parking area 30 
Changing room ---non-simultaneous
Children playground5including playground equipment
Computer classroom1.5 
Club room1.5 
Conference room1.5 
Consultant room5 
Common room1.5 
Computer room5 
Dance studio5 
Department store5 
Deposit/strong room30 
Design studio5 
Detention room3 
Dining area
    Hawker centre1.5 
    Fast food outlet1 
Discotheque1including dine & dance area
Dormitory4.2bedroom area only, excluding living area, toilet, etc.
Examination room5 
Exposition/ Trade fair area1.5 
Fast food outlet1 
Filing room/ store10 


    Bus/ Airport/ Ferry terminal or station

Fitness club/ centre5 
Function room1.5 
    seating1.5occupant load can be based on number of fixed seating
    surgical viewing3 
General storage30 
Goods storage30 
Grandstand/ seating area 1.5 
Guestroom/ accommodation unit 15min. 2 persons per room or 15m2/person, whichever is higher
Health club/ centre5 
Hobby room1.5 
Indoor games room1.5 
Indoor sport hall
  school with multi-purpose hall 3 
  school without multi-purpose hall1 
Karaoke lounge1.5including dine & dance areas
Kitchen/ service area10 
  healthcare occupancy20 
  schools/ colleges/ tertiary institutions5 
   with machine operation15 
Lecture room1.5 
Library room
stack area10 
reading area5 
Lighting control room
   theatres/ cinemas/ concert halls5 
Loading/ unloading area 4 per bay 
Locker room---non-simultaneous
Machine/ printing room10 
Maisonettes, residential15 
Mechanical plant room30 
Meeting room1.5 
Multi-purpose hall/ room
    school/ colleges1 
Multi-purpose sports hall
   public sport complex3 
   public swimming complex3 
Night club1.5including dine & dance area
Nursing station10 
  Admin/ general10 
  director/ manager room15 
  drafting room/ area5 
Operation theatre7.5 
Orchestral pit1.5 
Out-patient waiting area 1.5 
Packing/ distribution area 10 
Passenger arrival/ departure areas
    Bus/ Airport/ Ferry terminal or station 1.5 
Patient accommodation
    intensive care20 
Pedestrian linkway
  with commercial activities2aboveground or underground
  without commercial activities---non-simultaneous
  staff area10 
  public waiting area2 
Prayer hall1.5 
Pre-function room---non-simultaneous
Production area10automated or non-automated
Projection room
   theatres/ cinemas/ concert halls5 
Promotion area1.5 
Reading room5 
Reception area3 
Recreation room1.5 
Refreshment area1.5 
Roof---access for maintenance only
Roof garden/ roof terrace, private---non-simultaneous part of individual residential unit
Roof garden/ roof terrace, public
  health/ exercise corner5with exercise equipment
  jogging track/ designated foot path<=3m in width3 
  planter box <300m high1.5 
  planter box =>300mm---fully covered with trees/ shrubs
  planter box =>300mm & <= 500mm high1.5turf
  planter box >500mm high---without step/ ramp access
  sunken/ elevated water feature <300mm in depth/height3permanent or fixed structure
  sunken/ elevated water feature =>300mm in depth/height---permanent or fixed structure
  sunken planting area---fully covered with trees/ shrubs
  sunken planting area1.5turf
  other areas1.5 
Seminar room1.5 
Server room30 
Serviced apartment15per unit
Service area10 
Sick room---non-simultaneous
Skating rink
       rink area3 
       spectator area1.5 
Snack bar1.5 
Society room1.5 
Spa5include areas for weight training, aerobics, massage, sauna/steam bath and whirlpools
Squash court2 per court 
Staff office10 
Storage area30 
Staff canteen1.5 
Staff lounge3 
Staff quarters15min. 2 persons per room or 15m2/person, whichever is higher
Stage, back3 
Stage, front
  schools/ colleges/ tertiary institutions3 
  theatres/ cinemas/ concert halls---non-simultaneous
Storage/ store room30 
Swimming pool
  condominium/ apartment5 
  private club--- 
  public sports complex2.5 
  public swimming complex2.5 
  serviced apartment--- 
Swimming pool deck
  private club10 
  public sports complex5 
  public swimming complex5 
  serviced apartment10 
Student bedroom15min. 2 persons per room or 15m2/person, whichever is higher
Therapy centre10 
Ticketing office10 
Trading floor2 
Training area
   public sports complex3 
  public swimming complex3 
Treatment room5 
Visitors lounge3 
Waiting area3 


-  All functional spaces shall be computed based on accessible floor area for the calculation of occupant load, unless specifically exempted under the “Remarks” column. 

-  The functional spaces stated above are non-exhaustive. Usage of other occupancy load factor is only allowed if permitted by SCDF.

Updated 25 Aug 2023