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Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history Print

6.4 FIRE SPRINKLER INSTALLATION

6.4.1 Provision

The following shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system:

a. Compartment size

Whenever compartmentation requirements under Chapter 3 of this Code cannot be complied with. 

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b. Buildings other than PG I and II

Every storey of buildings of more than 24m in habitable height, except for PG I and II, regardless of whether the compartmentation requirements are complied with. 

c. PG II mixed occupancy 

(1) For PG II mixed occupancy buildings exceeding 24m in habitable height, the non-residential parts shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system if they:

(a) comprise more than one storey, or 

(b) are located above the first storey.

(2) For PG II mixed occupancy buildings regardless of habitable height, the non-residential parts shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system if they are not compartmented from the basement storeys.

(3) For non-residential parts where sprinkler protection is not required under sub-clauses (1) & (2) above, an automatic fire alarm system shall be provided for the non-residential parts in accordance with Cl.6.3.1b.

d. Basement 

(1) All basement storeys irrespective of compartment size, except for those used as PG I or II, shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system. Where the upper storeys of the building are fully compartmented from the basement storeys, the requirement for provision of an automatic sprinkler system for floors above the basement shall be considered separately and in accordance with Cl.6.4.1a., b. and c.

(2) Exemption

(a) Where the basement storey is effectively cross ventilated to prevent smoke logging, the basement storey can be exempted from providing an automatic sprinkler system.

(b) In the case of residential developments located over basement car parks, relaxation on the provision of these sprinkler system and smoke purging systems to the basement car park can be granted if all of the following conditions are met:

R Rationale - Clause 6.4.1d.(2)(b)

The ventilation openings provided at the basement car parks minimizes the risk of smoke-logged situation. These dimensions have been validated through a fire engineering study.

(i) The basement car parking shall consist of one level only.

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(ii) External openings shall be provided to achieve effective cross ventilation by means of evenly distributed vertical openings along the perimeter walls and evenly distributed voids over the basement in such manner that:

• no point within the basement is more than 12m from any vertical opening or void for spaces that are in between two openings or voids;

• no point shall be more than 6m from any opening or void for spaces that are ventilated by such opening or void on only one side; and

• such vertical openings shall be at least 600mm in height.

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(iii) The total aggregate area of these voids and vertical openings shall be not less than 20% of the total basement floor area.

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(iv) An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided for the basement car parks with extension of alarm bells to the common/lobby areas of the upper storeys in accordance with Cl.6.3.1a. and b.

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e. Atrium space

A fire sprinkler system shall be provided for an atrium space not exceeding 18m in height. For an atrium with ceiling height exceeding 18m (in whole or in part), water monitor, deluge and/or extended-throw sprinkler systems shall be provided to cover the entire atrium space.

f. Exemption of sprinkler protection

All of the following areas not located within PG VI or VIII buildings are exempted from sprinkler protection in a sprinkler-protected building:

(1) Canopies/car porches

(a) Such areas are to be used solely for the purpose of passengers pick-up and drop-off. 

(b) There shall be no commercial activities or storage within these areas.

(c) Cut-off sprinklers and fire-rated walls are not required to be provided to separate the sprinkler-protected and non-sprinkler-protected areas.

(2) External corridor 

External corridors shall not exceed 4m in width, and there shall be no commercial activities or storage within these areas.

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(3) External/open-sided linkways

External/open-sided linkways shall not exceed 5m in width, and there shall be no commercial activities or storage within these areas.

(4) Covered areas

Areas which are covered with trellises, louvres or perforated panels, which have 50% or more evenly distributed effective free openings (applicable to all purpose groups).

6.4.2 Standard

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Installation of the sprinkler system and its associated water supply, and control and testing requirements shall comply with the SS CP 52.

6.4.3 System design

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a. Connection to the SCDF Operations Centre

The sprinkler system shall be electrically monitored so that on the operation of any sprinkler head, the fire signal is automatically transmitted to a fire station through an approved alarm monitoring company.

b. Fire pumps

Installation of fire pumps for sprinkler systems shall comply with requirements of SS CP 52. Sprinkler pumps shall be installed within a fire compartmented fire pump room, whose fire rating shall be in accordance with Table 6.4a. The sprinkler pump room floor level shall not be lower than the main floor level.

c. Sprinkler control valve

The sprinkler control valve(s) shall be located in one of the following areas:

(1) Facing an external space within a travel distance of 10m from entrance to the FCC.

(2) Within a fire lift lobby/smoke-stop lobby.

(3) Within a sprinkler pump room.

(4) Within a 1-hr fire-rated enclosure, located at most 10m travel distance from the entrance to the exit staircase.

d. Location plan

A floor plan showing the locations of the sprinkler tank room, sprinkler pump room, breeching inlets and control valves shall be prominently displayed within the FCC. In the absence of the FCC, the floor plan shall be located in the following order of priority:

(1) within the guard house, or

(2) next to the main fire alarm panel.

6.4.4 Special purpose rooms

a. Where a building is required to be provided with an automatic sprinkler system under this Code, parts of the building which are used for purposes stipulated in Table 6.4A shall be compartmented in accordance with columns 3(a) and 3(b) of the table.

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b. Where a building is not required to be provided with an automatic sprinkler system under this Code, special purpose rooms stipulated in Table 6.4A shall be compartmented in accordance with columns 2(a) and 2(b).

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c. For the protection of communication nerve centres, data process centres and process control rooms composing of high value computers or telecommunication equipment, if automatic sprinklers are to be replaced by an automatic fire extinguishing system, the enclosure to the hazard or occupancy shall comply with the following:

(1) it shall be constructed to have 1-hr fire resistance rating;

(2) any door opening shall be protected with a 1-hr fire door;

(3) it shall not be provided with more than two exits;

(4) the direct travel distance to any exit door of the enclosure shall not exceed 15m; and

(5) the fire extinguishing system shall use clean agent and shall conform to Cl.6.5.2.

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6.4.5 Car park

In multi-storey buildings under PG II to VIII with an aboveground car park, the provision of fire protection and smoke control systems for the car park shall be in accordance with Table 6.4B.

6.4.6 Water mist systems

Water mist systems can be permitted as a substitute for automatic sprinklers in sprinkler-protected buildings, provided all of the following requirements are complied with:

a. The water mist system shall be of a propriety design that has been tested to meet the performance requirements of a standard acceptable to the SCDF.

b. The design and installation of water mist system shall conform to NFPA 750 or AS 4587.

c. The components of the water mist system shall be listed by a recognised testing laboratory.

6.4.7 Reduced water storage for automatic fire sprinkler system

This reduced water storage is only applicable to existing buildings of habitable height not exceeding 60m, and which have a hazard classification of Ordinary Hazard Group I, II or III under SS CP 52. It shall not apply to new buildings, any building housing storage risks and chemical processes.

a. Design considerations

(1) Tank sizing

The minimum water storage capacity of the sprinkler tank shall be capable of providing adequate water supply for 30 mins of the sprinkler pump operation.

(2) System with reliable inflow

For sprinkler systems with a constant reliable inflow from the town mains to replenish the sprinkler tank, the effective tank storage capacity for the various hazard categories shall be as follows:

TABLE 6.4.7a.(2): EFFECTIVE TANK CAPACITY FOR RELIABLE INFLOW OF NOT LESS THAN 1.0m3/min, & WATER INLET POINT AT REDUCED LEVEL OF 125m OR BELOW
Occupancy group System demand** Minimum effective capacity of storage tank, or 30 mins’ storage, whichever is greater
OH1 540 L/min 12.5m3
OH2 1000 L/min 25.0m³
OH3 1350 L/min 37.5m³

Note:

** = the upper limit in column 6 of Table 17 of SS CP 52

(3) System with unreliable inflow

For sprinkler systems with an unreliable inflow from the town mains to replenish the sprinkler tank, the effective tank storage capacity for the various hazards categories shall be as follows:

TABLE 6.4.7a.(3): EFFECTIVE TANK CAPACITY FOR UNRELIABLE INFLOW OF LESS THAN 1.0m3/min, OR WATER INLET POINT AT REDUCED LEVEL GREATER THAN 125m
Occupancy group System demand** Minimum effective capacity of storage tank, or 30 mins’ storage, whichever is greater
OH1 540 L/min 16.2m3
OH2 1000 L/min 30.0m³
OH3 1350 L/min 40.5m³

Note:

** = the upper limit in column 6 of Table 17 of SS CP 52

(4) Pipe sizing

Full hydraulic calculation methods shall be adopted for the design of the sprinkler system pipework. The sprinkler design must ensure that the flow does not exceed the system demand as stipulated in Table 6.4.7a.(2) and Table 6.4.7a.(3), throughout the installation. The flow and pressure limitations can be overcome by employing constant flow pressure reducing valves or by including orifice plates at connections to main distribution pipes.

b. Water supply

(1) Size of incoming mains

The pipe size of the replenishing water mains to the sprinkler storage tank shall not be less than 150mm in diameter. Hydrants, hose reels and external drenchers shall not be connected to the sprinkler system or draw from the sprinkler water supply.

(2) Inlets to storage tank

The inlets to the storage tank shall be fitted with a non-modulating type of pilot float valve listed by the authority having jurisdiction.

6.4.8 Combined sprinkler and wet riser systems

a. Combining sprinkler and wet riser systems is permitted for buildings of ordinary hazard category classification provided their designs comply with the provisions stipulated in SS CP 52 and SS 575 respectively.

b. There is no necessity to cater for water storage for the sprinkler system’s demand separately.

c. Pump sets shall be designed for the simultaneous operation of both the sprinkler and wet riser systems.

d. The combined systems’ sprinkler riser and wet riser stacks shall not be interconnected by sprinkler system piping or a single riser that serves both systems.