• 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

  • Fire Hazard Reporting

    1800 280 0000

  • General Enquiries

    1800 286 5555

  • 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

Search Fire Code by:

Navigate to:

Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history


6.2.1 Type of rising mains

a. The type of rising main system provided shall be appropriate to the building as follows:

(1) dry rising mains shall be installed in PG II to VIII buildings of habitable height more than 10m, but not more than 60m;


(2) wet rising mains shall be installed in buildings with habitable height exceeding 60m; and

(3) separate dry and wet rising main systems in a building are permitted.


b. Notwithstanding the requirements in Cl.6.2.1a., dry rising mains conforming to SS 575 shall be provided to supply any part of a single or multiple level basement.


c. Where the building has access from more than one ground level or road level, the height measurements for the purpose of this Code shall be taken from the level of the fire engine accessway. Where there is no fire engine accessway, the height measurements shall be based on fire engine access road.


6.2.2 Number, location and size of rising mains

! Note to QPs on Clause 6.2.2 Under normal circumstances, a building below 10m in habitable height would not require rising mains. However, if such buildings have very large floor area or footprint, whereby its internal areas are outside the coverage of a fire hose length of 38m from the fire-fighting access panels, it is recommended that the internal rising mains to be incorporated to cover these areas. Otherwise, consultation with the SCDF ought to be sought. 

a. Standard

The number, distribution, size and installation of rising mains shall comply with the requirements stipulated in SS 575.


b. Locations of landing valves

Rising mains and the associated landing valves shall be kept free of physical and visual obstruction, and be located:

(1) within a fire lift lobby, smoke-free lobby or external corridor immediately outside the door of the exit staircase, or


(2) in the case where there is no fire lift lobby, smoke-free lobby and external corridor, it shall be located inside an exit staircase, or in the common area and within a protected shaft, immediately outside the door of the exit staircase.

Note: Where there are provisions of fire lift lobby and smoke-free lobby within the building, the position of rising mains and landing valves shall first be located inside fire lift lobby.


c. Provision for landing valves and standby fire hoses


(1) The location and provision for landing valves shall comply with SS 575. Where any part of the 1st storey of a building, except for PG II buildings, is more than 38m (30m hose line length and a jet throw of 8m) from the breeching inlet, a landing valve at the 1st storey shall be provided.

(2) Where all the exit staircases in a building under PG III to VIII are installed with rising mains and standby fire hoses, and yet part of a floor space is beyond the 38m (30m hose line length and a jet throw of 8m) coverage of any landing valve, an additional standby fire hose shall be provided at the landing valve nearest to this floor space.

6.2.3 Breeching inlets and fire engine accessway/fire engine access road

a. All buildings fitted with rising mains shall have a fire engine accessway/fire engine access road for firefighting appliances within 18m of the breeching inlet. The breeching inlets shall be visible from the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road.


b. The requirements and provisions for breeching inlets for the rising main system shall be in accordance with the SS 575. Connecting pipes between the inlets and the vertical run of the rising mains, where applicable, shall be kept as short as possible.


6.2.4 Wet rising mains

a. Water supply

The capacity of the water supply from the public mains and the storage capacity for a wet rising main system shall comply with the requirements in SS 575.


b. Flow

The flow requirements for wet rising main system shall comply with those stipulated in SS 575.


c. Running pressure

Running pressure at each discharging landing valve on the wet rising main system shall be maintained between the minimum and maximum values as stipulated in SS 575.


d. Static pressure

Static pressure in any line of hose connected to a landing valve in a wet rising main system shall not exceed the specified value in SS 575.


e. Storage tanks

The location of storage tank and capacity of break tank where required shall comply with the requirements in SS 575.


f. Fire pumps

Installation of fire pumps for wet rising main system shall comply with the requirements of SS 575. Wet riser pumps shall be installed within a fire compartmented fire pump room, whose fire rating shall be in accordance with Table 6.4A . The fire pump room floor level shall not be lower than the main floor level.


g. Water supply system

(1) The water supply requirements for wet riser system shall be as follows:

No: of stacks Water flow rate (L/s)
Non-residential buildings Residential buildings
1 38 27
2 57 40.5
3 76 54
4 & above 95 67.5

(2) The minimum water storage capacity shall be capable of supplying water at the above flow rate for the period as specified in SS 575.

6.2.5 Standby fire hose for rising mains

Standby fire hoses shall be provided for every rising main except for those in buildings under PG II. The following requirements shall be complied with:

a. Type and folding method


(1) The standby fire hose shall be of 63.5mm nominal internal diameter in order to ensure that the hose coupling will fit the existing coupling tail pieces. The hose shall be rugged and capable of carrying water under substantive pressure in accordance with BS 6391. The fire hose shall be of Type 3 as stipulated in BS 6391.

(2) The fire hose couplings shall be manufactured to BS specifications or equivalent and of be light alloy or gunmetal. The coupling shall be of 63.5mm diameter and be of the instantaneous type with standard (double-pull) release mechanism. The couplings shall be secured to the hoses with galvanised mild steel wire and applied over a hose guard of synthetic fibre. It shall be able to withstand a minimum working pressure of 15 bars.

(3) Each hose shall have a standard length of 30m and shall be kept stowed in a Dutch Roll and housed in a glass fronted cabinet. The Dutch Roll shall be rolled in the manner shown in Diagram 6.2.5a.(3).

b. Position


(1) The fire hose shall be installed just next to, but not more than 2m from the landing valve as shown in Diagram 6.2.5b.(1).

(2) The entire fire hose and cabinet shall be installed away from direct sunlight.

c. Mounting

The wall mounted fire hose and cabinet shall be as follows:

(1) The cabinet shall be firmly mounted on the wall and able to withstand the weight of the hose(s) it houses.

(2) The cabinet shall be constructed of non-combustible material and be maintenance free.

(3) The cabinet lock, if provided, shall be one that can be operated manually from the inside without the use of a key when the front tempered glass (minimum 300mm x 300mm) is broken by firefighters.

(4) The cabinet swing door shall be made openable such that it will not obstruct the retrieving of the fire hose by firefighters.

(5) The depth of the cabinet shall not exceed 250mm for one fire hose or 350mm for two fire hoses.

(6) The cabinet shall be painted in a contrasting colour such that it is conspicuous and easily identified.

(7) The wording, “FIRE HOSE”, with letter height of at least 50mm and shown in contrasting colour, shall be painted directly on the front panel as shown in Diagram 6.2.5b.(1).

(8) In lieu of the cabinet, a simple wall mounted cradle for the fire hose can be provided, but only in the riser main shaft. The cradle shall be constructed and positioned to facilitate the retrieving of fire hose by firefighters.

(9) The cradle (in lieu of the cabinet) shall be maintenance-free. The fire hose installation height shall be limited as indicated in Diagram 6.2.5b.(1).

d. General

(1) Only clean, dry and compactly rolled (Dutch Roll with the Velcro strap secured as shown in the Diagram 6.2.5a.(3) and b.(1)) hose(s) shall be placed in the cabinet.

(2) BS 6391 stipulates the technical requirements for quality acceptance standards of the fire hose. In addition, the above mentioned requirements shall be applicable for acceptance of the standby fire hose.

6.2.6 Building under construction


When a building in pursuance of Cl.6.2.1, is required to be equipped with rising mains, such rising mains shall be installed progressively as required under Cl.9.9.3 during the course of construction. All outlets, landing valves and inlets, water tanks and pumps, and hydrants shall be properly installed so as to be readily operational in case of fire.

6.2.7 Foam inlets


a. Provision

(1) Where boiler room or storage room containing highly combustible materials are located in a basement, or is not easily accessible for firefighting, foam inlets and pipe works shall be provided for the purpose of delivering foam solution to an area close to the room concerned.

(2) In situations where such rooms have access openings along a fire engine accessway, provision of foam solution inlets and outlets is not required.

b. Breeching inlet

A two-way breeching inlet shall be provided at ground level with pipe run of minimum 100mm bore, terminating with a landing valve just outside the high fire risk room. The provision of the breeching inlet shall comply with the relevant clauses of SS 575.

6.2.8 Hose reels

a. Provision

(1) Hydraulic hose reel(s) conforming to the requirements in SS 575 shall be provided for every storey of every building regardless of building height.

(2) Where a roof level is a non-habitable floor, fire hose reels shall be provided to cover the M&E plants/equipment.

(3) Exemption

(a) PG I buildings.

(b) Non-residential occupancy at the 1st storey of a mixed commercial-cum-residential building or single storey standalone building, which fulfils all of the following conditions:

(i) AFA of the non-residential unit does not exceed 150m².

(ii) Individually compartmented except for the parts of the unit fronting and within 3m from the external space.

(iii) Not used as an eating establishment, or for storage of flammable materials.

(iv) Not used as a public entertainment outlet. 

(v) Not belonging to PG VI or VIII buildings.


(vi) Not used as a dormitory, hostel, etc. where sleeping risk is involved.

(c) Other standalone buildings as follows:

(i) Single-storey guard houses.

(ii) Bin centres.

(iii) 22kV (and lower) electrical substations.

(iv) Open-sided sheds (excluding those for PG VI and VIII usages) with AFA not exceeding 200m2 and openings that constitute not less than 80% of the perimeter wall area (measured along the roof eaves).

(v)   Roof level of single storey buildings with roof height not more than 12m or inaccessible pitched roof up to 24m from grade level  used solely for roof-mounted PV installations in accordance with Cl.10.2.1b.(1).

(vi)  Roof level of an external/ open-sided overhead bridge/ shed/ linkway/ walkway with clear width less than 6m, roof height not more than 12m and  used solely for roof-mounted PV installations  in accordance with Cl.10.2.1b.(1).

(v) Domestic water supply, rainwater, wastewater, sewage pumping stations with AFA not exceeding 300m2.

(d) Mezzanine floor of factory unit, subject to compliance with Cl.9.6.1a.(2), and provided the coverage distance of the nearest hose reel at the main floor to the most remote point of the mezzanine floor does not exceed 36m (30m hose path and 6m throw).


b. Size and type

The hose shall be of 20mm or 25mm nominal diameter and conform to EN 694, shall not exceed 30m in length and terminate in “shut-off” branches with 4mm or 6mm nozzles.


c. Water supply

Water supply for hose reels in terms of flow rate and minimum running pressure shall comply with the requirements in SS 575.


d. Siting and installation 

(1) Siting and details of installation for hose reels shall comply with the requirements in SS 575.


(2) Installation for hose reels shall comply with the requirements in SS 575.

(3) Hose reels shall be sited in prominent and accessible locations within a distance of 5m from the exit door but not inside exit staircases. If there are parts of the floor space that are beyond the 36m coverage (30m hose path and 6m throw) of the hose reel, additional hose reels shall be provided at the common area or at a distance of not more than 5m from the exit access door of a room. 

(4) Hose reels located within a room shall not be used for covering the areas outside the room.

e. Piping

The use of copper or stainless steel piping is permissible for the connection of the hose reels to the PUB mains


6.2.9 Graphical symbols


Graphical symbols to depict fire safety equipment are allowed for use in buildings provided the signs comply with SS 508. The Table below shows the different sizes of the graphical symbol with respect to the viewing distance.

Viewing Distance 0 to 6m > 6 to 9m > 9 to 12m 12m or more
Minimum height of symbol (Z=100) 60mm 90mm 120mm 150mm

Note :

The luminous factor (Z=100) from SS 563 is used to determine the size of the sign. It essentially dictates the size of the sign that varies with distance. The graphical symbol for firefighting equipment shall be sized such that the height and width are same. The size of symbol is not inclusive of borders.

Updated 1 Sep 2022