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Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history Print

4.4 PRIVATE FIRE HYDRANT

4.4.1 Provision of private fire hydrant

a. General

Every part of a fire engine accessway and/or fire engine access road shall be within an unobstructed distance of 50m from a fire hydrant. Where a public fire hydrant conforming to this requirement is not available, private fire hydrant(s) shall be provided (see Diagram 4.4.1a.).

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b. Use of public fire hydrant

Existing public fire hydrants along one side of a public road shall not be designated to serve developments sited on the other side of the public road, except for a road having at most two lanes, regardless of traffic direction.

c. Locations of fire hydrants

In situations where more than one private fire hydrants is required, the fire hydrants shall be located along the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road such that every part of the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road is within an unobstructed distance of 50m from any fire hydrant (see Diagram 4.4.1c.).

R Rationale - Clause 4.4.1b

Public roads with multiple lanes will likely have high volume of traffic. In the event where only one fire hydrant exists on the opposite side of the road, the traffic would be affected when firefighters utilise the hydrant. This will create congestion or result in road closure, thus disrupting the traffic flow.

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d. Siting and types of fire hydrants

Siting and types of fire hydrants shall comply with the requirements stated in SS 575.

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e. Ringed fire hydrant pipes

For a building that is required to have an island site fire engine accessway under Cl.4.4.2b., the fire hydrant pipe shall be a ring system. Isolation valves shall be provided on the fire hydrant ring such that individual fire hydrant can be isolated when required for maintenance without affecting the water supply (both designed pressure and flow) to the other fire hydrants on the ring.

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f. Valve locking device

A locking device shall be provided to lock the valves in open position during normal operation. Underground valves shall be kept in an open position at all times.

4.4.2 Water supply for private fire hydrant

The provision of water supply for a private fire hydrant system, where required by this Code, shall comply with the following requirements:

a. Private fire hydrant at or below reduced level 125m

Private fire hydrants installed at reduced level 125m and below can receive direct supply from public water mains. If the flow and pressure from the public water mains cannot meet the fire hydrant requirements as shown in Table 4.4A, a storage tank of sufficient capacity with the requisite pumping facilities shall be provided. For premises with private fire hydrants receiving direct supply from public water mains and not able to comply with the flow requirements stipulated in Table 4.4A, the following requirements shall be complied with:

(1) the compartment size shall not exceed 1000m2;

(2) the nominal bore of the fire hydrant pipe and the bulk water meter shall not be less than 150mm in diameter; and

(3) the running pressure/flow at the hydraulically most unfavourable fire hydrant of the private fire hydrant system shall comply with the following:

(a) running pressure >= 0.9 x (running pressure of the nearest public fire hydrant – pressure drop across the bulk water metre); and

(b) flow rate >= 0.9 x water flow of the nearest public fire hydrant or >= total flow demand (as required in Table 4.4A) of the private fire hydrant system, provided the running pressure at the most remote private fire hydrant is greater than 2 bars.

Note: In calculating the frictional loss for the private fire hydrant system, the design flow rates shown in Table 4.4A shall be used. The pressure drop across bulk water metre shall not be more than 1 bar.

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b. Private fire hydrant above reduced level 125m

(1) Where more than one private fire hydrant is located above reduced level 125m within the same plot, storage and pumping arrangements of water supply to these specified fire hydrants shall comply with the requirements stipulated in Cl.4.4.2c..

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(2) The private fire hydrant can be in the form of a dry fire hydrant, if it is not the sole fire hydrant within 50m from any breeching inlet(s) feeding firefighting systems for the building(s) within the plot of land, which include:

(a) automatic fire sprinkler systems, or

(b) dry riser systems, or

(c) wet riser systems.

(3) A dry fire hydrant shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(a) A dry private fire hydrant shall be connected to a 150mm diameter dry pipe, which shall be connected at the other end to a four-way breeching inlet.

(b) This breeching inlet shall be within 18m from any fire engine accessway/fire engine access road having minimum 4m width and within 50m from any wet fire hydrant, private or public.

(c) The private dry pillar shall be painted in “yellow” and labelled “dry” on the fire hydrant pillar.

(d) A signage indicating the location of breeching inlet shall be positioned next to the dry private fire hydrant.

c. Water supply and storage requirement

Where more than one private fire hydrant is located above reduced level 125m within the same plot, storage and pumping arrangements of water supply to these specified fire hydrants shall comply with those for wet rising mains stipulated in SS 575 and Table 4.4A Water Supply & Storage Requirements for Private Fire Hydrant.

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4.4.3 Protection of fire hydrant mains in buildings

R Rationale - Clause Clause 4.4.3 Hydrant mains running passing through a building shall be appropriately protected to prevent any damage to the hydrant pipework by fire or any activities/works carried out in the building. The hydrant mains, if damaged, would affect the water supply to the hydrant(s) which in turn would affect the firefighting operation. E

All fire hydrant mains which pass through a building shall have its full length within the building protected with fire resistance construction complying with Cl.3.8.7b.of at least the same fire resistance as the element of structure, provided all of the following requirements are complied with:

a. The fire hydrant mains shall be located in common circulation areas, such as car parking spaces and driveways, i.e. they shall not pass through private or confined spaces.

b. No services (except sprinkler pipes) shall be located above or crossing over the fire hydrant mains.

c. The fire hydrant mains shall be located away from explosion risk areas.

d. The protective enclosure to the fire hydrant mains shall be labelled with the words “FIRE HYDRANT MAIN” of minimum 50mm height at suitable intervals.

Cul-de-sac turning facility

Cul-de-sac turning facility

 

U-turn

U-turn radii


Dimensions of Turning Facilities for Firefighting Appliances
ParametersBuilding Habitable Height
< 10m> 10 & < 50m> 50m
R14.0m6.5m7.5m
R28.0m10.5m12.0m
R38.5m12.0m14.8m
L14.0m4.0m4.5m
L211.0m16.0m21.0m
L315.0m28.1m33.5m
L48.0m10.5m12.0m

Diagram 4.2.2e. : Turning facilities for firefighting appliances

Diagram 4.2.2j.(1) - 1

Diagram 4.2.2j.(1) - 1 : CPL 34 firefighting appliance - Wheels & jacks layout


Diagram 4.2.2j.(1) - 2

Diagram 4.2.2j.(1) - 2 : AL 56 & CPL 60 firefighting appliances - Wheels & jacks layout


Diagram 4.2.2f

Diagram 4.2.2f. : Building structure over fire engine accessway/fire engine access road

Diagram 4.2.2i.(3)

Diagram 4.2.2i.(3) : Signage for fire engine accessway/fire engine access road

Diagram 4.4.1a.

Diagram 4.4.1a. : Provision of private fire hydrant

Diagram 4.4.1c

Diagram 4.4.1c. : Siting of private fire hydrant

TABLE 4.2A: FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY/FIRE ENGINE ACCESS ROAD FOR PG II BUILDINGS
DetailsHabitable Height (m)
≤ 10> 10 & ≤ 50> 50
Width of fire engine access road > 4m
Width of fire engine accessway*Not required> 6m> 7m
Length of fire engine accessway*-> 15m> 15m
Type of firefighting appliancePump ladderCPL 34 & AL 56AL 56, CPL 60 & HLA 90
Loading capacity of fire engine road#> 24 tonnes> 30 tonnes> 50 tonnes
Loading capacity of fire engine accessway#-> 30 tonnes> 50 tonnes
Axle/Jack loading-See Table 4.2D & Table 4.2E
Turning facilitySee Diagram 4.2.2e.
U-turn radii

Note:

# = The appended figures for loading capacity of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road are characteristic values.

* = The fire engine accessway shall be provided and located to access at least one entire façade of each building block. 

TABLE 4.2B: FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY/FIRE ENGINE ACCESS ROAD FOR PG III, IV, V & VII BUILDINGS
Details Habitable Height (m)
≤ 10 > 10 & ≤ 50 > 50
Width of fire engine access road > 4m
Width of fire engine accessway Not required > 6m > 7m
Length of fire engine accessway - See Table 4.2.2a.(6)
Type of firefighting appliance Pump ladder CPL 34 & AL 56 AL 56, CPL 60 & HLA 90
Loading capacity of fire engine access road# > 24 tonnes > 30 tonnes > 50 tonnes
Loading capacity of fire engine accessway# -> 30 tonnes > 50 tonnes
Axle/Jack loading -See Table 4.2D & Table 4.2E
Turning facility See Diagram 4.2.2e.
U-turn radii

Note:

# = The appended figures for loading capacity of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road are characteristic values.

TABLE 4.2C: FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY/FIRE ENGINE ACCESS ROAD FOR PG VI & VIII BUILDINGS
Details Habitable Height (m)
≤ 10 > 10 & ≤ 50 > 50
Width of fire engine access road > 4m
Width of fire engine accessway > 6m > 6m > 7m
Length of fire engine accessway See Table 4.2.2a.(7)
Type of firefighting appliance CPL 34 & AL 56   CPL 34 & AL 56   AL 56, CPL 60 & HLA 90
Loading capacity of fire engine access road# >  30 tonnes > 30 tonnes > 50 tonnes
Loading capacity of fire engine accessway# > 30 tonnes > 30 tonnes > 50 tonnes
Axle/Jack loading See Table 4.2D & Table 4.2E
Turning facility See Diagram 4.2.2e.
U-turn radii

Note:

# = The appended figures for loading capacity of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road are characteristic values.  

TABLE 4.2D: AXLE LOADING OF FIREFIGHTING APPLIANCES
Axle No. (from font) Type of firefighting appliances
Pump Ladder CPL 34 AL 56 CPL 60 HLA 90
Loading Wt. (kg) No of wheels Loading Wt. (kg) No of wheels Loading Wt. (kg) No of wheels Loading Wt. (kg) No of wheels Loading Wt. (kg) No of wheels
Axle 1 10000 2 7500 2 9000 2 9000 2 9000 2
Axle 2 14000 2 10500 2 10500 4 9900 4 9000 2
Axle 3 - - 10500 4 10500 4 9900 4 10500 4
Axle 4 - - - - - - 8200 2 10500 4
Axle 5 - - - - - - - - 10000 2
Axle 6 - - - - - - - - - -

Note:

The appended figures for axle loading are characteristic values.

TABLE 4.2E: JACK LOADING OF FIREFIGHTING APPLIANCES
Type of Fire Appliance CPL 34 AL 56 CPL 60 HLA 90
Jack load contact area 5625 cm2 5625 cm2 7125 cm2 7125 cm2
Maximum pressure per Jack (4 jacks per vehicle) 37 N/cm2 37 N/cm2 37 N/cm2 50 N/cm2

Note:

The appended figures for jack loading are characteristic values.

TABLE 4.4A WATER SUPPLY & STORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE FIRE HYDRANT
    Purpose Group   Accessible Floor Area*   Minimum Flow Rate Minimum Running Pressure Minimum Water supply and Storage Duration
(m2) (L/s) (bar) (mins)
PG I & II - 27 2 45
PG III, IV, V & VII ≤ 1000 38 2 45
> 1000 & ≤ 5000 57
> 5000 & ≤ 10000 76
> 10000 95
PG VI & VIII ≤ 500 38 2 90
> 500 & ≤ 5000 57
> 5000 & ≤ 10000 76
> 10000 & ≤ 15000 95
> 15000 & ≤ 20000 114
> 20000 133

 Note :

*     = Based on the Accessible Floor Area (AFA) of the largest compartment in the building