Hotlines
  • 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

  • Fire Hazard Reporting

    1800 280 0000

  • General Enquiries

    1800 286 5555

  • 995

    Fire Engine/ Ambulance

  • 1777

    Non-Emergency Ambulance

Search Fire Code by:

Navigate to:

Legend: Explanations & Illustrations Rationale Note Revision history Print

4.2 PROVISION FOR EXTERNAL ACCESS TO BUILDING FOR FIREFIGHTING AND ACCESSIBILITY OF SITE TO FIREFIGHTING APPLIANCES

4.2.1 General

a. Fire engine accessways/fire engine access roads shall be provided to ensure site accessibility for firefighting appliances.

b. Fire engine accessways shall have an adequate clear width for the deployment of firefighting appliances, in accordance with the habitable height and the type of building, as stipulated in Table 4.2A, Table 4.2B and Table 4.2C.

c. Fire engine access roads shall have a clear width of at least 4m.

d. Fire access openings shall be provided along the external walls of buildings fronting the fire engine accessway to provide access into the building for firefighting and rescue operations.

4.2.2 Fire engine accessway and fire engine access road

a. Provision

(1) PG I and II buildings not exceeding 10m habitable height

E

A fire engine accessway is not required for the following buildings, however, a fire engine access road for access by firefighting appliances hall be provided to within a travel distance of 60m of every point on the projected plan area of the following buildings:

(a) PG I buildings;

(b) PG II buildings of habitable height not exceeding 10m; and

(c) Cluster housing.

(2) Non-residential standalone buildings within PG II development

Non-residential standalone buildings, such as clubhouses, car parks, etc. (excluding guardhouses and substations) that are located within a PG II housing development, shall comply with Cl.4.2.2a.(4)Cl.4.2.2a.(5)Cl.4.2.2a.(6) or Cl.4.2.2a.(7), depending on the habitable heights and usage of the buildings.

(3) PG II buildings exceeding 10m habitable height

For a building under PG II that exceeds the habitable height of 10m, all of the following shall be complied with:

(a) A fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall be provided within a travel distance of 18m to the entrance of all exit staircases where the landing valves (dry or wet riser) are provided.

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.2a.(3)(a)

The reason for specifying fire engine accessways/access roads to be located within 18m of all exit staircases installed with dry riser is to reduce the distance that firefighters needs to travel to get to the landing valve. This will effectively reduce the time taken by the firefighters to tackle the fire and conduct rescue operation.

E

(b) A fire engine accessway shall be provided to access at least one entire façade of each block and shall be located at a distance of at least 2m and at most 10m away from the façade of the building.

(c) The fire engine accessway shall be designed to meet the specifications stipulated in Table 4.2ATable 4.2D and Table 4.2E.

(4) PG III, IV, V & VII buildings not exceeding 10m habitable height

For buildings under PG III, IV, V and VII not exceeding the habitable height of 10m, a fire engine accessway is not required. However, a fire engine access road for access by firefighting appliances shall be provided to within a travel distance of 45m of every point on the projected plan area of the building.

(5) Basement

In the case of a basement, the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall be provided to within a travel distance of 18m to the entrance of all exit staircases that are provided with landing valves (dry or wet riser) in accordance with Cl.6.2.2b.. The measurement of 18m shall be between the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road and the entrance of exit staircase.

(6) PG III, IV, V & VII buildings exceeding 10m habitable height

E

For buildings under PG III, IV, V and VII exceeding the habitable height of 10m, a fire engine accessway shall be located directly below the fire access openings to provide direct reach to the designated fire access panels. The required length of fire engine accessway shall be computed based on the largest Accessible Floor Area (AFA) of any aboveground floors as follows:

(a) for interconnected floors, including basements connected to aboveground floors, the AFA shall be the aggregate AFA of all the interconnected floors, or

(b) for buildings with more than one group of interconnected floors, the AFA shall be taken as the largest of the aggregate floor areas among the groups of interconnected floors.

 

TABLE 4.2.2a.(6) : LENGTH OF FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY FOR PG III, IV, V & VII BUILDINGS
AFA (m2) Required length of perimeter
Non-sprinkler-protected Sprinkler-protected
≤ 2000 1/6 (at least 15m) 1/(at least 15m)
> 2000 & ≤ 4000 ¼
> 4000 & ≤ 8000 ½ ¼
> 8000 & ≤ 16000 ¾ ½
> 16000 & ≤ 32000 island site ¾
>32000 island site

(7) PG VI and VIII buildings

E

For buildings under PG VI and VIII, a fire engine accessway shall be provided for firefighting appliances. The required length of the fire engine accessway shall be calculated based on the following gross cubical extent of the building (excluding basement) as follows:

TABLE 4.2.2a.(7) : LENGTH OF FIRE ENGINE ACCESSWAY FOR PG VI & VIII BUILDINGS
Cubicle Extent (m3) Required length of perimeter
Non-sprinkler-protected Sprinkler-protected
≤ 28400 ⅙ (at least 15m) ⅙ (at least 15m)
> 28400 & ≤ 56800 ¼
> 56800 & ≤ 85200 ½ ¼
> 85200 & ≤ 113600 ¾ ¼
> 113600 & ≤ 170400 island site ½
> 170400 & ≤ 227200 ¾
>227200 island site

(8) Mixed-use buildings

(a) Where the non-residential component of the building occupies only the lower portion of the building, the measurement of habitable height for determining the provisions of a fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall be based on the non- residential component of the building.

(b) For mixed-use buildings without PG II usage, the length of fire engine accessway shall be computed based on the following, whichever is larger:

(i) the gross cubical extent of the PG VI or VIII usages; or

(ii) the larger compartmented floor area, for purpose groups other than PG VI and VIII.

(c) For mixed-use buildings with PG II usage, the length of fire engine accessway for mixed-use buildings shall be computed based on Cl.4.2.2a.(6) above. In addition, Cl.4.2.2a.(3) shall also be complied with.

b. Width of fire engine accessway

The width of fire engine accesssway shall be as specified in Table 4.2ATable 4.2B and Table 4.2C. Such fire engine accessway shall be able to accommodate the entry and manoeuvring of firefighting appliances, and extended ladder firefighting appliances, with turntable and/or hydraulic platforms.

c. Location

The fire engine accessway shall be positioned so that the nearer edge shall be at least 2m or at most 10m from the centre position of the fire access opening, measured horizontally.

d. Gradients of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road

The fire engine accessway shall be laid on a level platform. If on an incline, the gradient shall not exceed 1:15. A fire engine access road shall be laid on an incline not exceeding a gradient of 1:8.3.

e. Turning facilities

(1) A dead end fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall not exceed 46m in length. If exceeding 46m, it shall be provided with cul-de-sac turning facility as shown in Diagram 4.2.2e..

(2) The U-turn radii for firefighting appliances on a fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall comply with the requirements as shown in Diagram 4.2.2e..

f. Overhead clearance

An overhead structure shall only be permitted over a fire engine accessway/fire engine access road subject to all of the following (see Diagram 4.2.2f.):

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.2f

The restrictions of maximum 10m width of the overhead structure (e.g. link bridge) and the 20m separation distance between them is to ensure adequate openings for smoke ventilation, thus minimising risk of smoke accumulation under such structures. It also serves to provide visual cues to drivers of firefighting appliances that it is safe to travel through the space under the overhead structure.

(1) the overhead clearance for passage of firefighting appliances shall be at least 4.5m;

E

(2) the width of the overhead structure shall not be more than 10m;

(3) where more than one overhead structure spans across the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road, the separation distance between two adjacent overhead structures shall be at least 20m apart;

(4) the length of the end-stretch of the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall be at least 20m with no overhead structure; and

(5) the length of fire engine accessway required for the building shall exclude the stretch of fire engine accessway with the overhead structure.

g. Public road

Public roads can serve as a fire engine accessway, provided the location of such public roads is in compliance with the requirements of distance from fire access openings.

E

h. Obstruction

Fire engine accessways/fire engine access roads shall be kept clear of obstructions at all times. Plants, trees or other fixtures shall not obstruct the path between the fire engine accessway and fire access openings.

E

i. Marking of fire engine accessway and fire engine access road

(1) All corners of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall be marked, except where public roads are designated as fire engine accessway/fire engine access road.

(2) Metalled/non-metalled or paved/non-paved surface fire engine accessways/fire engine access roads shall be marked with reflective white or yellow strips of size not less than 100mm (W) x 400mm (L). The markings shall be visible at night and shall be provided on both sides of the fire engine accessways/fire engine access roads at an interval of not more than 5m.

(3) A sign post with white background and red wording of not less than 50mm in height shall be provided at the start and end of a fire engine accessway/fire engine access road. The height measured from the ground to the lowest point of the sign shall be between 2m and 2.2m. The sign post shall be visible at night and shall not be positioned more than 3m from the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road. Every part of the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall not be more than 15m from the nearest sign post. See Diagram 4.2.2i.(3).

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.2i(2)

The markings serve to guide our firefighters at a fire incident site where the fire engine accessways/access roads are not prominent and/or inconspicuous under poor lighting condition. The sign posts serve to indicate the maximum loading capacity and zone of the fire engine accessways/ access roads. They also serve to remind the public to keep the fire engine accessways/access roads clear of obstruction at all times.

E

j. Design of fire engine accessway and fire engine access road

(1) Fire engine accessway sizes

The minimum width, length and turning radii of a fire engine accessway shall be in accordance with Table 4.2ATable 4.2B and Table 4.2C and Diagram 4.2.2e.Diagram 4.2.2j(1) – 1 to 3 shows the relationship between the fire engine accessway and parked firefighting appliance with its front and rear jacks extended.

(2) Fire engine accessways and fire engine access roads, which can be on suspended slabs, metalled/non-metalled roads, paved/non-paved surfaces, ground laid with strengthened perforated slabs, etc., shall be designed to withstand both stationary and axle loading capacity of firefighting appliances respectively as stipulated in Table 4.2D and Table 4.2E. Where a fire engine access road is used for linking fire engine accessway, its loading and turning radius shall comply with the specifications for fire engine accessway.

k.Ancillary usage of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road

Fire engine accessway/fire engine access road shall not be turned into other usages such as pond, water features, car parking lots (including loading & unloading), etc.. Turfing of fire engine accessway/fire engine access road is only permitted on the straight stretch of the fire engine accessway/fire engine access road with gradient not exceeding 1:15.

4.2.3 Fire access opening to building for firefighting

a. Provision

Fire access openings shall be provided on the external wall for external firefighting and rescue operations. This can include unobstructed external wall openings, windows, balcony doors, glazed wall panels and access panels. Windows, doors, wall panels or access panels shall be readily openable from the inside and outside. The inside and outside of fire access openings shall be unobstructed at all times during the occupancy of the building. There shall be no furniture or any other obstruction within 1m from the fire access openings at the landing inside the building.

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.3(a) The purpose of providing fire access openings is to enable firefighters to gain access into the building from the exterior to rescue any trapped occupants and to facilitate external firefighting. Fire access openings shall not be located at exit staircases or smoke-stop/fire lift lobbies as these areas can be accessed through more conventional means. E

b. Location

The fire access opening shall be placed against an occupied space. It shall not be placed at plant/store room, exit staircase, smoke-free/fire lift lobby or space that leads only to a dead end. 

c. Signage

Panels to fire access openings shall be indicated with either a red or orange triangle of equal sides (minimum 150mm on each side), which can be upright or inverted, on the external side of the wall and with the wordings "Firefighting Access - Do Not Obstruct" of at least 25mm height on the internal side.

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.3c

The red/orange triangular signage provided on the external side of the fire access panels helps firefighters on the ground to locate the designated fire access openings readily during an emergency.

E

d. Size

Fire access openings shall be not less than 850mm wide by 1m high with sill height of not more than 1.1m, and head height not less than 1.8m above the inside floor level.

e. Number and position of fire access openings for buildings other than residential

(1) Number of fire access opening

For PG III to VIII, the number of fire access opening shall be based on the length of the fire engine accessway. Every 20m of fire engine accessway or part thereof shall be provided with an access panel.

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.3d

The sill height of not more than 1.1m is to facilitate the free movement of firefighters into or out of the building. Higher sill heights may impede their access and increases their risk of falling.

E

(2) Position

Fire access openings shall be remote from each other and located along the side of the building. Such fire access openings shall be spaced at most 20m apart measured along the external wall from centre to centre of the fire access openings. The fire access opening shall be distributed such that there is at least one opening at every 20m of the fire engine accessway, except for parts of the non-PG VI or non-PG VIII building that are single-storey.

E

(3) Fire access opening to compartment or spaces

(a) For buildings under PG III, IV, V and VII exceeding the habitable height of 10m, and up to 90m, fire access openings are required at every storey level, other than the 1st storey, and shall face the fire engine accessway directly.

(b) For building under PG VI and VIII, fire engine access openings located over a fire engine accessway shall be provided along the external walls, up to a habitable height of 90m.

(4) Additional openings for ventilation

For buildings under PG III to VIII where an area or space has a ceiling height greater than 10m, additional high level ventilation openings for smoke venting and firefighting purposes shall be provided and located in the external walls opening into the area or space. The ventilation opening shall meet the following criteria:

(a) the number and location of the openings shall comply with Cl.4.2.3e.(1) and Cl.4.2.3e.(2).

(b) the dimensions of the openings shall comply with Cl.4.2.3d.;

(c) the openings can be in the form of openable panels/louvres, breakable glazing, or permanent openings; and

(d) the openings shall not be indicated with the triangular signage as mentioned under Cl.4.2.3c., but instead be labelled with red wording, “DO NOT ENTER – FOR SMOKE VENTING ONLY”, of height not less than 50mm and visible from the building exterior.

R Rationale - Clause 4.2.3e.(4)

The additional high level ventilation openings are meant for use by firefighters to vent out the smoke so as to facilitate firefighting and rescue operations.

E ! Note to QPs on Clause 4.2.3e.(4)

Refer to Table 9.8B for smoke control requirements for general warehouse.

f. Exemption

The provision of fire access openings shall not be applicable to buildings under PG I and II, including building of non-residential ancillary usage (such as gyms, club rooms, etc.) in a residential building.