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Community Safety & Security Programme (CSSP)



What is CSSP

A Community Safety & Security Programme (CSSP) is an action plan jointly drawn up by C2E members, CERT, Grassroots Leaders, residents and the Home Team to tackle community issues and problems affecting the safety and security need of the local neighbourhood.


This plan is a proactive approach in implementing joint Community-Home projects and activities to meet the safety and security needs of the local community.


"... CSSP is not only about ensuring safety and security. What is also important is the community bonding that results from the team working together to resolve a common problem. With a common purpose and positive relationship with one another, the CSSP participants serve as a core team, while bringing in others to help out in addressing the community's problems.".


DPM Wong Kan Seng National CSSP Award Ceremony 2004



Purpose of CSSP

The main purpose of having joint Community-Home Team projects and activities is to draw the community into looking after its own safety and security matters through self-help and mutual support. The CSSP approach is very much in line with one of the key principles of the Singapore 21 vision - that of "Active Citizenship".



Through CSSP, residents have the opportunity to take an active lead in implementing programmes and activities to improve the safety and security of their neighbourhood.

Who owns CSSP

CSSP is owned by the community. Each and every member of the community must be involved and realise that he or she can contribute to the safety and security of the community.

What can CSSP do for me

Safety, security and community well being are at the heart of each community and these are the important cornerstones of promoting the spirit of self-help and mutual support.

CSSP can

  • Foster community cohesion among grassroots leaders and residents
  • Create opportunities for people to solve community problems as one group
  • Allow the residents to live harmoniously in a safer and more secure environment

How does CSSP work

The CSSP is formulated in 3 simple stages:

Stage 1: Describing Your Community

  • Describing the main characteristics of your community.
  • Identify your community concerns and needs.
  • Set your priorities to focus your efforts.

Stage 2: Who can Offer Help

Involve grassroots organisations, residents, Home Team and other related agencies e.g. National Fire and Civil Emergency Preparedness Council (NFEC), Hawkers and Merchants Association and Red Cross.

Stage 3: Action Plan

  • Co-create a set of actions to tackle your prioritised concerns.
  • A document for action is created.

CSSP action plan - Crafting One

An action plan is a document for operation. It is a final representation, which spells out the purposed action plan. In this chapter, the systematic approach to the process of crafting a CSSP Action Plan will be explained.

Step 1: Community Profiling

Determine The Community Concerns

To obtain the community profiling, firstly we need to determine the community concerns. There are several ways or methods to determine the community concerns. Three methods have been highlighted in the following section to guide in determining the community concerns.

  • Feedback Forms Receiving constant feedbacks from the residents during community activities. Feedback is one of the effective modes of interaction to better understand the community concerns.
  • Survey and Questionnaires Distribution of survey forms and questionnaires to the residents through postal means or at community functions and activities will be another alternative to obtain information about the residents' problems. The final compilation of the data (results of completed survey forms and questionnaires) will assist in discovering the problem that needs an immediate attention.
  • Regular House Visits Organising regular house visits to the residents can also be a qualified method to realise the community concerns. Visiting the residents at their doorsteps will allow the residents to be more attentive and comfortable in confiding their needs.

Step 2: Problem Identification and Prioritization

Problem Identification

  • What Is The Problem" To identify a problem is a very difficult task that requires skills. This is to give us a clear direction on the approach of solving the problem.
  • Concerns vs Problems We should also consider the concerns against the problem so as to understand the root of the problem.

A good community problem should be clear in understanding, has to be manageable and it allows collective actions to be taken to rectify the problem.

Problem Prioritisation

Problem prioritisation enables visualisation of the problem in a larger scope (the weightage of the problem). Factors contributing to the problem prioritisation will be as follows:

  • Urgent / Impact
  • Implementability
  • Within Control
  • Community Involvement
  • Community Outreach

Upon identifying the concerns or the problem, the problem has to be put to test against the above-mentioned factors to finalise the validity of the problem and the absolute need for it to be resolved.

Step 3: Co-opt The Right Agencies

Who Do We Need"

We need the right person for the right job. We need persons/ agencies who have a stake in the outcome of the CSSP action plan and who can influence the process and outcomes of the CSSP action plan. This team effort has the potential to create a better working relationship in peacetime through common activities.

Why Do We Need Others"

  • Resources
  • Commitment
  • Shared Responsibility

The co-operation and co-ordination with the right agencies will make possible the operational means of the tasks, which we encounter. As CSSP is team effort, the impeccable services provided by the right agencies is indeed important. Joining hands with others will give an opportunity to reach out and achieve unlimited level of resources and the participation of others will boost the commitment given to the job and will therefore impart a shared responsibility among the group.

Step 4: Seeking Fundamental Solution

Part 1: Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a reliable method, which requires maximum participation (more than one contributor) of persons to assemble and conduct a group discussion. The vast controversial exchange of ideas and suggestions by the group members will produce an informal atmosphere among them.


During brainstorming:

  • Generate idea by rotation
  • Criticisms are banned
  • Welcome free wheeling
  • Record all ideas
  • Adapt and modify
  • Substitute ideas

Part 2: Quality of Solution

How do we ensure that the solution addresses the fundamental causes" A good solution should therefore:

  • Address the problem effectively (brings improvements)
  • Remove the recurrence nature of the problem
  • Refrain from giving long term/ unseen undesirable effects
  • Be efficiently gained with lesser resources

Step 5: Set Targets and Timeframe

Setting Target

Setting target emphasizes the objective to be attained at the end of the road. Every plan is executed towards a designated goal. With a common objective and a common destiny, the congregated team is set to achieve the proposed target.


The characteristics of a TARGET:

  • It has to be relevant to the fundamental solutions
  • It must be clear and concise
  • It has to be reasonably challenging
  • The target has to be attainable
  • The target has to be quantifiable

Setting Timeframe

A problem has to be rectified with the nearest possible timeframe. Setting timeframe for a plan is important, as it stipulates the urgency of solving the problem.

Step 6: Documentation

All actions need documentation for verification and record keeping. Every action is accountable and needs proper authorisation from the committee preparing the CSSP. The documentation should consist the following elements:

  • General Information
  • Subject being covered
  • Persons responsible for preparing the CSSP
  • Purpose of the programme
  • The broad Plan
  • Organisations responsible for programme
  • Manner in which the programme is to be undertaken
  • Work implementation schedule

Step 7: Implementation


Implementing can only be seen through with strong funding. There are various ways to seek financial support. One common way is by self-funding, whereby a collective effort within the C2Es, RCs, NCs, and CCCs to accumulate the required fund for the plan.

Seek Assistance

  • Assistance given by CDC on CSSP
  • Assistance given by HT (e.g. Police, SCDF)

Step 8: Monitor, Review and Evaluate

Upon implementing the plan, a continuous monitoring and reviewing exercise is a good practice. A close check on the implemented plan must be taken regularly to find out the post effect / results of the plan.

Civil Defence CSSP activities

Over the past years, the SCDF has initiated many community programmes to build awareness, generate support and secure participation in its activities. The scope of activities encompasses educational talks and exhibitions, public exercises, training of volunteers and residents etc.

With the introduction of the Community Safety & Security Programme (CSSP), the SCDF will continue and is ready to extend its partnership with the community to enhance the safety and emergency preparedness level of the population. The scope of CD CSSP entails:


Emergency Response

  • Public education on fire prevention, ambulance abuse and home safety.
  • Establish Fire Points (installation of fire extinguishers) for old shophouses.
  • Fighting fires in rubbish chutes.
  • Care and Support for victims and their next of kin.

Emergency Preparedness

  • CD Survival skills training.
  • Emergency Planning & Exercises for the constituency.
  • Recommendations and Presentation of Public Spirited Awards.

SCDF's Approach To CSSP

SCDF work closely with and support our Police counterparts to implement the CDC-level Community Safety and Security Programme on safety and security matters.

Close liaison has also been established with the People"s Association (PA) through the Community Emergency and Engagement Committees (C2Es) to implement Constituency-level CSSPs on CD matters. The C2Es are the grassroots organizations with many years of experience in promoting fire safety and emergency preparedness matters with the community.

SCDF's approach to engaging our CSSP partners is whereby CD Divisions jointly organise CSSP workshops with the C2Es, provide professional advice and educational / publicity material to support constituency level CSSPs on CD matters, and work with the grassroots and community groups particularly the C2Es in conducting CSSPs to tackle issues affecting the safety and security of their neighbourhoods.

Getting Involved In CD CSSP

Each member of the community is welcome to participate in the CSSP process. Your feedback will help to profile the community for the CSSP. Your grassroots leaders are a vital link in this process. Please contact your C2E / CDEC or Civil Defence Officers at the nearest Civil Defence Division for more information about getting involved in civil defence CSSPs.

Similarly, you can also contact your local CDCs, Citizens' Consultative Committees (CCCs), Residents' Committees (RCs) or Police Officers at the nearest Neighbourhood Police Centre (NPC) or Neighbourhood Police Post (NPP).

SCDF's CSSP Stories

Some of the winning projects for the National CSSP Awards 2010 are as follows:


Geylang Serai Community Engagement Programme with Religious Organisations

Members from clan associations, temples, mosques and foreign worker dormitories in Geylang Serai were engaged in activities which readied the ground for an emergency.  Those activities included tabletop exercises and training in the areas of crime prevention, the Community Emergency and Preparedness Programme and the Community Engagement Programme.


Seletar Hill Private Estate is Ready

An Emergency Preparedness (EP) day was conducted for residents of the Seletar Hill private estate to educate them in fire safety, emergency preparedness, first aid and CPR knowledge. The EP day also included a scenario drill depicting an explosion in a coffee-shop setting.  The project is commendable in co-opting residents from private estates in local safety and security issues.


Radin Mas Educationists" Emergency Preparedness Booklet

The emergency preparedness booklet was created to educate pre-schoolers on crucial life saving topics such as fire safety and tremors. It also introduced the importance of ethnic and religious cohesion within the community. The booklet was then presented to about 200 grassroots leaders, pre-school teachers and parents during a graduation ceremony.


The Hotel All-Ready Project

The project aimed to enhance the readiness and resilience of hotels in Singapore. Hoteliers within the Central district attended the Community Emergency Preparedness Programme, from which 5 participated in the pilot programme on customised In Place Protection. The Hotelier IPP Bag was also introduced to encourage local hotels to be prepared for an emergency.


Crisis Befriender Volunteer Programme

To enhance the psycho-social response capability of the community, the programme trained a pool of volunteers known as the Crisis Befrienders. Crisis Befrienders would stand ready for deployment during a crisis to look after the psychological and emotional needs of victims and their families to allow the community to recover faster in the aftermath of an emergency.